OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 35, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 1996
  • pp: 120–125

Theoretical analysis of confocal microscopy with microlenses

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, R. N. Krämer, and L. Wiegers  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 35, Issue 1, pp. 120-125 (1996)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (346 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Scanning confocal microscopy is well established and applied frequently in biomedical science and more recently in engineering disciplines. For technical applications a confocal principle based on microlens arrays was developed. The principle permits a high depth resolution on a large field. A theoretical analysis of this principle together with some experimental results are presented.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: May 15, 1995
Revised Manuscript: September 5, 1995
Published: January 1, 1996

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, R. N. Krämer, and L. Wiegers, "Theoretical analysis of confocal microscopy with microlenses," Appl. Opt. 35, 120-125 (1996)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. T. Wilson, “Optical aspects of confocal microscopy,” in Confocal Microscopy, T. Wilson, ed. (Academic, London, 1990), pp. 93–139.
  2. H. Stark, “Theory and measurement of the optical Fourier transform,” in Applications of Optical Fourier Transforms, H. Stark, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1982), pp. 2–40.
  3. J.W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, San Francisco, 1968), Chap. 5, p. 88.
  4. A. Papoulis, Systems and Transforms with Applications in Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), Chap. 5, p. 171.
  5. T.R. Corle, C.-H. Chou, G. S. Kino, “Depth response of confocal optical microscopes,” Opt. Lett. 11, 770–772 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Wilson, C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).
  7. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1980).
  8. T. Wilson, “Depth response of scanning microscopes,” Optik 81, 113–118 (1989).
  9. T. Wilson, A. R. Carlini, “Size of the detector in confocal imaging systems,” Opt. Lett. 12, 227–229 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H.J. Tiziani, H. M. Uhde, “Three-dimensional analysis by a microlens-array confocal arrangement,” Appl. Opt. 33, 567–572 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited