OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 35, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 1996
  • pp: 97–101

Packing-density calculation of thin fluoride films from infrared transmission spectra

Sven Laux and Wolfgang Richter  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 35, Issue 1, pp. 97-101 (1996)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (194 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Optical thin films of MgF2 and NdF3 have been made by molecular-beam deposition in ultrahigh vacuum. The film packing density was calculated from the water amount that filled the cavities of the films in air. For that the transmission in the IR spectral region with a characteristic water absorption band at a wave number of 3400 cm−1 was measured. The influence on the packing density of a modification of thin-film morphology by stratification of very thin sublayers of different crystallizing fluorides is tested.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: February 2, 1995
Revised Manuscript: July 18, 1995
Published: January 1, 1996

Sven Laux and Wolfgang Richter, "Packing-density calculation of thin fluoride films from infrared transmission spectra," Appl. Opt. 35, 97-101 (1996)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. F. Spann, M. R. Torr, “Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. 1: Optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4284–4292 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. J. Taylor, R. B. Gibson, J. P. Roberts, “Two-photon absorption at 248 nm in ultraviolet window materials,” Opt. Lett. 13, 814–816 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, E. Hacker, “Initial layer growth in thin MgF2, LaF3, CaF2, and LiF films,” Vide Couches Mines Suppl. 259, 104–106 (1991).
  4. E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, D. Schaefer, R. Wolf, H. Mueller, “Correlation between morphology, optical losses and laser damage of MgF2–SiO2 multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 156, 1–10 (1988). [CrossRef]
  5. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, 1986), p. 399.
  6. S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Hiraga, “Refractive index and packing density for MgF2 films: correlation of temperature dependence with water sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3–10 (1975). [CrossRef]
  7. U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weissbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, H. Mueller, “Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,” Thin Solid Films 217, 7–16 (1992). [CrossRef]
  8. K. Kinosita, M. Nishibori, “Porosity of MgF2 film-evaluation based on changes in refractive index due to adsorption of vapors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 730–733 (1969). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vital, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979). [CrossRef]
  10. H.-J. Kuehn, A. Duppare, W. Richter, A. Lehmann, U. Bergner, “Physical properties of evaporated PbF2 optical films,” Thin Solid Films 201, 281–292 (1992). [CrossRef]
  11. A. Lehmann, W. Heerdegen, G. Schirmer, H. Mutschke, W. Richter, E. Hacker, R. Dohle, “Structure correlated infrared properties of fluoride films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, 638–688 (1990). [CrossRef]
  12. K. H. Guenther, “Enhanced physical vapor deposition and resulting microstructure of thin films,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Optical Coatings (Pergamon, New York, 1989), pp. 8–12.
  13. J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.678, 115–122 (1986).
  14. F. Flory, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, Y. Hu, “Surface optical coatings by ion assisted deposition techniques: study of uniformity,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2952–2959 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. N. S. Gluck, H. Sankur, W. J. Gunning, “Ion-assisted laser deposition of CaF2 thin films at low temperatures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2983–2987 (1989). [CrossRef]
  16. J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, “Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3733–3737 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, “Ion-assisted deposition of magnesium fluoride films on substrates at ambient temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1732–1733 (1985). [CrossRef]
  18. K. L. Lewis, J. A. Savage, “A fundamental approach toward improved optical coatings,” in Proceedings of the 1983 Boulder Laser Damage Symposium (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, 1983), pp. 1–7.
  19. C. C. H. Hale, I. T. Muirhead, S. P. Fisher, G. J. H. Mathew, “The evolution of molecular beam deposition (MBD) from laboratory to production stage,” in Proceedings of the Boulder Damage Symposium (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, 1989), pp. 455–470.
  20. A. Lehmann, “Infrarotspektroskopische Charakterisierung Dünner Schichten,” Phys. Halbleiteroberfläche 19, 153–160 (1988).
  21. M. Born, K. Huang, Dynamical Theory of Crystall Lattices (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1954), p. 112.
  22. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, 1986), p. 50.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited