Optical image reconstruction in heterogeneous turbid media is sensitive to noise, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement system is low. A total-variation-minimization-based iterative algorithm is described in this paper that enhances the quality of reconstructed images with frequency-domain data over that obtained previously with a regularized least-squares approach. Simulation experiments in an 8.6-cm-diameter circular heterogeneous region with low- and high-contrast levels between the target and the background show that the quality of the reconstructed images can be improved considerably when total-variation minimization is included. These simulated results are further verified and confirmed by images reconstructed from experimental data by the use of the same geometry and optically tissue-equivalent phantoms. Measures of imaging performance, including the location, size, and shape of the reconstructed heterogeneity, along with absolute errors in the predicted optical-property values are used to quantify the enhancements afforded by this new approach to optical image reconstruction with diffuse light. The results show improvements of up to 5 mm in terms of geometric information and an order of magnitude or more decrease in the absolute errors in the reconstructed optical-property values for the test cases examined.
© 1996 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: October 2, 1995
Revised Manuscript: January 25, 1996
Published: July 1, 1996
Keith D. Paulsen and Huabei Jiang, "Enhanced frequency-domain optical image reconstruction in tissues through total-variation minimization," Appl. Opt. 35, 3447-3458 (1996)