The composition-dependent structural, microstructural, optical, and mechanical properties of TiO2–MgF2 composite films prepared by reactive electron-beam coevaporation at a substrate temperature of 280 °C are systematically investigated with an x-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscope, spectrophotometer and varied angle of incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry, and microhardness tester, respectively. A comparison of the films prepared by reactive ion-assisted coevaporation shows that the films prepared by reactive electron-beam coevaporation have lower refractive indices and hardnesses. However, TiO2–MgF2 composite films prepared by both techniques exhibit similar softening and hardening phenomena and similar microstructures.
© 1996 Optical Society of America
Rung-Ywan Tsai and Mu-Yi Hua, "Microstructural, optical, and mechanical properties of reactive electron-beam-coevaporated TiO2-MgF2 composite films," Appl. Opt. 35, 5073-5079 (1996)