OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 35, Iss. 25 — Sep. 1, 1996
  • pp: 5102–5107

Realization and optimization of planar refracting microlenses by Ag–Na ion-exchange techniques

Jochen Bähr and Karl-Heinz Brenner  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 35, Issue 25, pp. 5102-5107 (1996)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (630 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report the fabrication of planar microlenses with numerical apertures (N.A.’s) of 0.2 by field-assisted Ag–Na ion exchange in glass. To measure the N.A. of microlenses, different definitions can be used. We discuss the issue of measuring the N.A. and suggest an additional definition based on diffraction-limited performance. According to a simple model, the N.A. of a spherical lens is limited by the maximum index difference. Owing to this model, the N.A. for Ag–Na ion exchange is limited to a value of ~0.1. From measurements of microlenses, fabricated by field-assisted ion exchange, we obtained N.A.’s as high as 0.2, providing for diffraction-limited performance within the whole aperture.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: October 16, 1995
Revised Manuscript: February 29, 1996
Published: September 1, 1996

Jochen Bähr and Karl-Heinz Brenner, "Realization and optimization of planar refracting microlenses by Ag–Na ion-exchange techniques," Appl. Opt. 35, 5102-5107 (1996)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. B. Messerschmidt, T. Possner, R. Göhring, “Colorless gradient-index cylindrical lenses with high numerical apertures produced by silver-ion exchange,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7825–7830 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Hamanaka, H. Nemoto, M. Oikawa, E. Okuda, T. Kishimoto, “Multiple imaging and multiple Fourier transformation using planar microlens array,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4064–4070 (1990). [CrossRef]
  3. M. C. Hutley, “Optical techniques for the generation of microlens arrays,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 253–265 (1990). [CrossRef]
  4. R. Völkel, Ph. Nussbaum, K. J. Weible, H. P. Herzig, R. Dändliker, S. Haselbeck, M. Eisner, J. Schwider, “Fabrication of nonconventional microlens arrays,” in Proceedings of European Optical Society, Topical Meeting on Microlens Arrays (European Optical Society, 1995).
  5. M. Oikawa, K. Iga, “Distributed-index planar microlens,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1052–1056 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Bähr, K.-H. Brenner, S. Sinzinger, W. Singer, T. Spick, M. Testorf, “Index-distributed planar microlenses for three-dimensional micro-optics fabricated by silver-sodium ion exchange in BGG35 substrates,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5919–5924 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H.-J. Lilienhof, E. Voges, D. Ritter, B. Pantschew, “Field-induced index profiles of multimode ion-exchanged strip waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1877–1883 (1982). [CrossRef]
  8. W. Singer, M. Testorf, K. H. Brenner, “Gradient-index microlenses: numerical investigation of different spherical index profiles with the wave propagation method,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2165–2171 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. R. Flores, J. Sochnacki, “Design of gradient-index microlenses for stacked planar optics,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3409–3414 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Intani, T. Baba, K. Iga, “Planar microlens relay optics utilizing lateral focusing,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5255–5258 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Chartier, P. Collier, A. Guez, P. Jaussaud, Y. Won, “Graded-index surface or buried waveguides by ion exchange in glass,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1092–1095 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980).
  13. J. Bähr, K. H. Brenner, J. Moisel, W. Singer, S. Sinzinger, T. Spick, M. Testorf, “Diffusion elements in glass: comparison and optimization of the diffusion response in different glass types,” in Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, Z. I. Alferov, J. W. Goodman, A. L. Mikaelian, eds., Proc. SPIE1806, 234–242 (1992).
  14. J. Bähr, K. H. Brenner, J. Moisel, W. Singer, S. Sinzinger, T. Spick, M. Testorf, “Modification of the imaging properties of ion-exchange microlenses by mask shaping,” in Technical Digest of the Tenth Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems, (European Optical Society, 1992), p. 187.
  15. M. Oikawa, H. Nemoto, K. Hamanaka, E. Okuda, “High numerical aperture planar microlens with swelled structure,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4077–4080 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited