OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 35, Iss. 25 — Sep. 1, 1996
  • pp: 5220–5226

Imaging acousto-optic tunable filter with 0.35-micrometer spatial resolution

Elliot S. Wachman, Wen-hua Niu, and Daniel L. Farkas  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 35, Issue 25, pp. 5220-5226 (1996)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1350 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Image blur in acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF’s) has been a persistent problem. Here we describe the connection between transducer structure and image blur and experimentally measure it by using a 5-cm 12°-cut TeO2 crystal of our design. With these quantitative results, we develop an image-processing method that minimizes AOTF-related image degradation. The combination of long crystal design and image processing results in substantially improved image contrast and spatial resolution relative to conventional AOTF imaging devices. We present high-magnification images of fluorescent actin fibers in cells in which we obtain a resolution of approximately 0.35 μm, representing the first successful use of an AOTF for ultra-high-resolution microscopy. Further improvements are also predicted.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: November 29, 1995
Revised Manuscript: March 4, 1996
Published: September 1, 1996

Elliot S. Wachman, Wen-hua Niu, and Daniel L. Farkas, "Imaging acousto-optic tunable filter with 0.35-micrometer spatial resolution," Appl. Opt. 35, 5220-5226 (1996)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Hallikainen, J. P. S. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Color image processing with AOTF,” in Proceedings of 6th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, M. Pietikainen, J. Roning, eds. (Pattern Recognition Society, Finland, 1989), Vol. 1, pp. 294–300.
  2. T. Chao, J. Yu, L. Cheng, J. Lambert, “AOTF imaging spectrometer for NASA applications: breadboard demonstration,” in Optical Information Processing Systems and Architectures II, B. Javidi, ed., Proc. SPIE1347, 655–663 (1990).
  3. I. C. Chang, “Electronically tuned imaging spectrometer using acousto-optic tunable filter,” in Optical Technology for Microwave Applications VI and Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas III, B. M. Hendrickson, S. Yao, eds., Proc. SPIE1703, 24–29 (1992).
  4. D. R. Suhre, M. Gottlieb, L. H. Taylor, N. T. Melamed, “Spatial resolution of imaging noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2118–2121 (1992). [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Cui, D. Cui, J. Tang, “Study on the characteristics of an imaging spectrum system by means of an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2899–2902 (1993). [CrossRef]
  6. G. Gao, Z. Lin, “Acousto-optic supermultispectral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3081–3086 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Cheng, T. Chao, M. Dowdy, C. LaBaw, C. Mahoney, G. Reyes, “Multispectral imaging systems using acousto-optic tunable filter,” in Infrared and Millimeter Wave Engineering, H. Buscher, ed., Proc. SPIE1874, 224–231 (1993).
  8. T. Chao, G. Reyes, E. Hegbloom, L. Cheng, “Spatial-spectral optical pattern recognition using an acousto-optic tunable filter preprocessor,” in Optical Pattern Recognition IV, D. P. Casasent, ed., Proc. SPIE1959, 410–415 (1993).
  9. R. B. Wattson, S. A. Rappaport, E. E. Frederick, “Imaging spectrometer study of Jupiter and Saturn,” Icarus 27, 417–422 (1976). [CrossRef]
  10. W. H. Smith, “Spectral differential imaging detection of planets about nearby stars,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 1344–1353 (1987). [CrossRef]
  11. W. H. Smith, K. M. Smith, “A polarimetric spectral imager using acousto-optic tunable filters,” Exp. Astron. 1, 329–343 (1991). [CrossRef]
  12. D. A. Glenar, J. J. Hillman, B. Seif, J. Bergstrahl, “POLARIS II: an acousto-optic imaging spectropolarimeter for ground based astronomy,” in Polarization and Remote Sensing, W. G. Egan, ed., Proc. SPIE1747, 92–101 (1992).
  13. D. A. Glenar, J. J. Hillman, B. Seif, J. Bergstralh, “Acousto-optic imaging spectropolarimetry for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7412–7424 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. R. Morris, C. C. Hoyt, P. J. Treado, “Imaging spectrometers for fluorescence and Raman microscopy: acousto-optic and liquid crystal tunable filters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 857–866 (1994). [CrossRef]
  15. P. J. Treado, I. W. Levin, E. N. Lewis, “High-fidelity Raman imaging spectrometry: a rapid method using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 1211–1216 (1992). [CrossRef]
  16. M. D. Schaeberle, J. F. Turner, P. J. Treado, “Multiplexed acousto-optic tunable filter spectral imaging microscopy,” in Image Acquisition and Scientific Imaging Systems, H. C. Titus, A. Waks, eds., Proc. SPIE2173, 11–20 (1994).
  17. P. J. Treado, Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15260 (personal communication, 1995).
  18. I. Kurtz, R. Dwelle, P. Katzka, “Rapid scanning fluorescence spectroscopy using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1996–2003 (1987). [CrossRef]
  19. I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic devices and applications,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-23, 2–22 (1976). [CrossRef]
  20. T. Yano, A. Watanabe, “Acousto-optic TeO2 tunable filter using far-off-axis anisotropic Bragg diffraction,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2250–2258 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic devices and applications,” in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. II, p. 12.12.
  22. Ref. 21, p. 12.13.
  23. R. J. Pieper, T. Poon, “System characterization of apodized acousto-optic Bragg cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1751–1758 (1990). [CrossRef]
  24. A patent application is currently pending on the instrument described in the preceding paragraphs.
  25. L. A. Shepp, Y. Vardi, “Maximum-likelihood reconstruction for emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 1, 113–121 (1982). [CrossRef]
  26. T. Holmes, “Maximum-likelihood image restoration adapted for noncoherent optical imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 666–673 (1988). [CrossRef]
  27. D. L. Farkas, G. Baxter, R. De Biasio, A. Gough, M. A. Nederhof, D. Pane, J. Pane, D. R. Patek, K. W. Ryan, D. L. Taylor, “Multimode light microscopy and the dynamics of molecules, cells, and tissues,” Ann. Rev. Physiol. 55, 785–817 (1993). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited