OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 35, Iss. 33 — Nov. 20, 1996
  • pp: 6527–6543

How well can radiance reflected from the ocean–atmosphere system be predicted from measurements at the sea surface?

Howard R. Gordon and Tianming Zhang  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 35, Issue 33, pp. 6527-6543 (1996)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.35.006527


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (649 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

There is interest in the prediction of the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance of the ocean–atmosphere system for in-orbit calibration of ocean color sensors. With the use of simulations, we examine the accuracy one could expect in estimating the reflectance ρ T of the ocean–atmosphere system based on a measurement suite carried out at the sea surface, i.e., a measurement of the normalized sky radiance ρ B and the aerosol optical thickness (τ a ), under ideal conditions—a cloud-free, horizontally homogeneous atmosphere. Briefly, ρ B and τ a are inserted into a multiple-scattering inversion algorithm to retrieve the aerosol optical properties—the single-scattering albedo and the scattering phase function. These retrieved quantities are then inserted into the radiative transfer equation to predict ρ T . Most of the simulations were carried out in the near infrared (865 nm), where a larger fraction of ρ T is contributed by aerosol scattering compared with molecular scattering, than in the visible, and where the water-leaving radiance can be neglected. The simulations suggest that ρ T can be predicted with an uncertainty typically ≲1% when the ρ B and τ a measurements are error free. We investigated the influence of the simplifying assumptions that were made in the inversion-prediction process, such as modeling the atmosphere as a plane-parallel medium, using a smooth sea surface in the inversion algorithm, using the scalar radiative transfer theory, and assuming that the aerosol was confined to a thin layer just above the sea surface. In most cases, these assumptions did not increase the error beyond ±1%. An exception was the use of the scalar radiative transfer theory, for which the error grew to as much as ~2.5%, suggesting that the use of ρ B inversion and ρ T prediction codes that include polarization would be more appropriate. However, their use would necessitate measurement of the polarization associated with ρ B . We also investigated the uncertainty introduced by an unknown aerosol vertical structure and found it to be negligible if the aerosols were nonabsorbing or weakly absorbing. An extension of the analysis to the blue, which requires measurement of the water-leaving radiance, showed significantly better predictions of ρ T because the major portion of ρ T is the result of molecular scattering, which is known precisely. We also simulated the influence of calibration errors in both the Sun photometer and the ρ B radiometer. The results suggest that the relative error in the predicted ρ T is similar in magnitude to that in ρ B (actually it was somewhat less). However, the relative error in ρ T induced by error in τ a is usually much less than the relative error in τ a . Currently, it appears that radiometers can be calibrated with an uncertainty of ~±2.5%, therefore it is reasonable to conclude that, at present, the most important error source in the prediction of ρ T from ρ B is likely to be error in the ρ B measurement.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: January 30, 1996
Revised Manuscript: June 3, 1996
Published: November 20, 1996

Citation
Howard R. Gordon and Tianming Zhang, "How well can radiance reflected from the ocean–atmosphere system be predicted from measurements at the sea surface?," Appl. Opt. 35, 6527-6543 (1996)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-35-33-6527


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. H. R. Gordon, “A preliminary assessment of the Nimbus-7 CZCS atmospheric correction algorithm in a horizontally inhomogeneous atmosphere,” in Oceanography from Space, J. R. F. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981) pp. 257–266. [CrossRef]
  2. H. R. Gordon, “Reduction of error introduced in the processing of coastal zone color scanner-type imagery resulting from sensor calibration and solar irradiance uncertainty,” Appl. Opt. 20, 207–210 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Koepke, “Vicarious satellite calibration in the solar spectral range by means of calculated radiances and its application to Meteosat,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2845–2854 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Viollier, “Radiance calibration of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner: a proposed adjustment,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1142–1145 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, D. K. Clark, “Nimbus 7 CZCS: reduction of its radiometric sensitivity with time,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3929–3931 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. A. Hovis, J. S. Knoll, G. R. Smith, “Aircraft measurements for calibration of an orbiting spacecraft sensor,” Appl. Opt. 24, 407–410 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. S. Fraser, Y. J. Kaufman, “Calibration of satellite sensors after launch,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1177–1185 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sensing Environ. 22, 11–37 (1987). [CrossRef]
  10. R. Frouin, C. Gautier, “Calibration of NOAA-7 AVHRR, GOES-5, and GOES-6 VISSR/VAS solar channels,” Remote Sensing Environ. 22, 73–101 (1987). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, “Calibration of the AVHRR visible and near-IR bands by atmospheric scattering, ocean glint, and desert reflection,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 14, 21–52 (1993). [CrossRef]
  12. S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, D. I. Gellman, “Uncertainties in the in-flight calibration of sensors with reference to measured ground sites in the 0.4 to 1.1 μm range,” Remote Sensing Environ. 48, 245–252 (1994). [CrossRef]
  13. P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER Mission: Instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 32, 598–615 (1994). [CrossRef]
  14. S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS Technical Report Series: Volume 1, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (July1992).
  15. V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: Advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “Retrieval of the columnar aerosol phase function and single scattering albedo from sky radiance over the ocean: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4598–4609 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Airforce Base, Mass., 1979).
  18. P. J. Reddy, F. W. Kreiner, J. J. Deluisi, Y. Kim, “Aerosol optical depths over the Atlantic derived from shipboard sunphotometer observations during the 1988 global change expedition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 4, 225–240 (1990). [CrossRef]
  19. G. K. Korotaev, S. M. Sakerin, A. M. Ignatov, L. L. Stowe, E. P. McClain, “Sunphotometer observations of aerosol optical thickness over the North Atlantic from a Soviet research vessel for validation of satellite measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 725–735 (1993). [CrossRef]
  20. Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 20983–20988 (1994). [CrossRef]
  21. T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamauchi, “Retrieval of the optical properties of aerosols from aureole and extinction data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951–2959 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of a visible spectral electro-optic “fisheye” camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 6, 652–662 (1989). [CrossRef]
  23. S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, S. A. Kooi, G. D. Nowicki, “Simultaneous LASE and LITE aerosol profile measurements over the Atlantic,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 76, S71 (1995).
  24. C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurements of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the Sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954). [CrossRef]
  25. K. Ding, H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: effects of Earth curvature,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7096–7106 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, S. J. Hitzfelder, “Multiple scattered radiation emerging from Rayleigh and continental haze layers. 1. Radiance, polarization, and neutral points,” Appl. Opt. 15, 632–647 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1980), p. 739.
  29. B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, “Automatic Sun and sky scanning radiometer system for network aerosol monitoring,” Remote Sensing Environ, in press.
  30. P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, D. I. Gellman, P. R. Spyak, “Vicarious radiometric calibration of EOS sensors,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 349–359 (1995). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited