OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 35, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 1996
  • pp: 1056–1068

National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer

T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, J. E. Hardis, C. L. Cromer, and A. C. Parr  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 35, Issue 7, pp. 1056-1068 (1996)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (301 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to serve as a primary standard for optical power measurements. This instrument is an electrical-substitution radiometer that can be operated at cryogenic temperatures to achieve a relative standard uncertainty of 0.021% at an optical power level of 0.8 mW. The construction and operation of the high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer and the uncertainties in optical power measurements are detailed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: July 27, 1995
Revised Manuscript: October 16, 1995
Published: March 1, 1996

T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, J. E. Hardis, C. L. Cromer, and A. C. Parr, "National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer," Appl. Opt. 35, 1056-1068 (1996)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. E. F. Zalewski, C. R. Duda, “Silicon photodiode device with 100% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2867–2873 (1983).
  2. C. L. Cromer, “A new spectral response calibration method using a silicon photodiode trap detector,” presented at the 1991 Measurement Science Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 31 January–1 February 1991.
  3. C. L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J. E. Hardis, T. C. Larason, A. C. Parr, “National Institute of Standards and Technology detector-based photometric scale,”Appl. Opt. 32, 2936–2948 (1993).
  4. J. M. Houston, C. L. Cromer, J. E. Hardis, T. C. Larason, “Comparison of the NIST high accuracy cryogenic radiometer and the NIST scale of detector spectral response,” Metrologia 30, 285–290 (1993).
  5. T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, C. L. Cromer, “Realization of a scale of absolute spectral response using the NIST high accuracy cryogenic radiometer,” submitted to Appl. Opt.
  6. F. Hengstberger, Absolute Radiometery (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), Chap. 1, p. 30; Chap 6, p. 206.
  7. D. C. Ginnings, M. L. Reilly, “Calorimetric measurement of thermodynamic temperatures above 0 °C using total black-body radiation,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, H. H. Plumb, ed. (Instrument Society of America, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1972), Vol. 4, Part I, pp. 339–348.
  8. C. R. Yokley, “Aradiometric calibration facility for low temperature blackbodies,” Earth Resources Aircraft Program Rep. (NASA, Washington D.C., 1976).
  9. C. R. Yokley, “Long wave infrared testing at NBS,” in Applications of Optical Metrology: Techniques and Measurements II, R. C. Harney, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.416, 2–8 (1983).
  10. T. J. Quinn, J. E. Martin, “A radiometric determination of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant,” in Precision Measurement and Fundamental Constants II, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 617, 291–297 (1984).
  11. T. J. Quinn, J. E. Martin, “A radiometric determination of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant and thermodynamic temperatures between –40 °C and +100 °C,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 316, 85–189 (1985).
  12. J. E. Martin, N. P. Fox, P. J. Key, “A cryogenic radiometer for absolute radiometric measurements,” Metrologia 21, 147–155 (1985).
  13. J. E. Fu Lei, J. Fischer, “Characterization of photodiodes in the UV and visible spectral region based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia30, 297–303 (1993).
  14. Certain trade names and company products are mentioned in the text or identified in an illustration in order to specify adequately the experimental procedure and equipment used. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the products are necessarily the best available for the purpose.
  15. Model ITC-4, Oxford Instruments, Inc., 130A Baker Ave., Concord Mass. 01742.
  16. Chemglaze Z302, Lord Corporation, Industrial Coatings Division, 200 West Grandview Blvd., Erie, Pa. 16514-0038.
  17. 3M-Nextel, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing, St. Paul, Minn. 55144-1000.
  18. R. U. Datla, K. Stock, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, P. J. Miller, P. V. Foukal, “Characterization of an absolute cryogenic radiometer as a standard detector for radiant-power measurements,”Appl. Opt. 31, 7219–7225 (1992).
  19. K. D. Stock, H. Hofer, “Present state of the PTB primary standard for radiant power based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia 30, 291–296 (1993).
  20. M. Woolfrey, Oxford Instruments, Old Station Way, Eynsham, Witney, Oxon, U.K. (personal communication), 1995.
  21. Model LS-100, Cambridge Research and Instrumentation, Inc., 21 Erie St., Cambridge, Mass. 02139.
  22. G. K. White, Experimental Techniques in Low Temperature Physics (Oxford Univ., New York, 1987), p. 111.
  23. B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, “Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results,” NIST Tech. Note 1297, 2nd ed. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1994).
  24. T. R. Gentile, C. L. Cromer, “Mode-locked lasers for high accuracy cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia (to be published).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited