OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 35, Iss. 9 — Mar. 20, 1996
  • pp: 1409–1423

Thermally induced strain and birefringence calculations for a Nd:YAG rod encapsulated in a solid pump light collector

Stuart D. Jackson and James A. Piper  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 35, Issue 9, pp. 1409-1423 (1996)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.35.001409


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (464 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Calculations and experimental measurements of the thermally induced strain and birefringence are presented for a diode-pumped Nd:YAG rod that is encapsulated in a prismatic pump light collector. A numerical model is developed to determine the spatiotemporal stress-induced strain distribution across the prism, index-matching fixant, and laser rod, and the birefringence that arises from the stress-induced strain within the laser rod. Calculations of the birefringence are compared with polarscopic measurements and display good agreement. Support for the rod on all sides is provided by the prism and fixant, and the distribution and degree of the stress-induced strain (and birefringence) within the laser rod are therefore influenced by the geometry and composition of the prism and fixant. These strains are thermomechanical in origin and are primarily a function of the elastic modulus of the fixant and the temperature of the system. Such stress-induced strains are additional to those strains that are produced from temperature gradients across the laser rod and result from the laser rod being constrained from expanding. Collectors utilizing index-matching fluid as the encapsulant display the smallest measure of birefringence relating to the temperature gradients in the rod. However, for collectors utilizing solid fixants (with significant elastic modulus), an increase in the birefringence results. In this case collector designs that have the laser rod located in a symmetrically shaped prism are effective in reducing the nonuniform pressures on the sides of the rod and therefore the birefringence. 1996 Optical Society of America r

© 1996 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: January 3, 1995
Revised Manuscript: May 19, 1995
Published: March 20, 1996

Citation
Stuart D. Jackson and James A. Piper, "Thermally induced strain and birefringence calculations for a Nd:YAG rod encapsulated in a solid pump light collector," Appl. Opt. 35, 1409-1423 (1996)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-35-9-1409


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, R. L. Burnham, “Highly efficient TEM00 operation of a transversely diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 186–188 (1992).
  2. R. J. Koshel, I. A. Walmsley, “Modeling of the gain distribution for diode pumping of a solid-state laser rod with nonimaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1517–1527 (1993).
  3. J. M. Dawes, S. D. Jackson, Y. Cai, P. Dekker, J.A. Piper, “Diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers using solid nonfocussing collector geometry,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 219.
  4. S. D. Jackson, J. A. Piper, “Theoretical modelling of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a solid nonfocusing pump light collector,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2273–2283 (1994).
  5. S. D. Jackson, J. A. Piper, “Thermal modelling of solid nonfocussing pump light collectors used for diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2012–2023 (1995).
  6. J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, Y. Cai, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with low uniform gain characteristic,” Opt. Commun. 115, 617–625 (1995).
  7. J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, Y. Cai, D. S. Knowles, S. D. Jackson, J.A. Piper, “Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto, T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p.50.
  8. W. Koechner, D. K. Rice, “Birefringence of YAG:Nd laser rods as a function of growth direction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 758–766 (1971).
  9. F. W. Quelle, “Thermal distortion of diffraction-limited optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 5, 633–637 (1966).
  10. W. Koechner, “Absorbed pump power, thermal profile and stresses in a cw pumped Nd:YAG crystal,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1429–1434 (1970).
  11. J. D. Forster, L. M. Osterink, “Thermal effects in a Nd:YAG laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656–3663 (1970).
  12. W. Koechner, D. K. Rice, “Effect of birefringence on the performance of linearly polarised YAG:Nd lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 557–566 (1970).
  13. S. Timoshenko, “Plane stress and plane strain,” in Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1934), pp. 12–26.
  14. V. Parfenov, V. Shashkin, E. Stepanov, “Numerical investigation of thermally induced birefringence in optical elements of solid-state lasers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5243–5255 (1993).
  15. Specification sheet data, Epoxy Technology Inc., 14 Fortune Drive, Billerica, Mass. 01821.
  16. C. A. Harper, ed., Handbook of Plastics and Elastomers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975), Chap. 3, p. 56.
  17. Specification sheet data, Dow Corning Corp., Midland, Mich. 48640.
  18. Specification sheet data, Scott Garsco Pty. Ltd., P.O. Box 174, Terrey Hills, N.S.W. 2084.
  19. S. S. Ballard, J. S. Browder, “Thermal properties,” in Volume IVOptical Materials Part 2: Properties, M. J. Weber, ed., CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology (CRC Press, Boca RatonFla., 1986), pp. 51–54.
  20. G. Sewell, “PDE2D: easy-to-use software for general two-dimensional partial differential equations,” Adv. Eng. Software 17, 105–112 (1993).
  21. J. F. Nye, “Natural and artificial double refraction. Second-order effects,” in Physical Properties of Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1985), pp. 235–259.
  22. W. Koechner, “Heat removal,” in Solid State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 350–401.
  23. W. G. Bickley, “The distribution of stress round a circular hole in a plate,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 227, 383–415 (1928).
  24. G. B. Jeffery, “Plane stress and plain strain in bipolar co-ordinates,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 221, 265–293 (1920).
  25. S. Timoshenko, Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1934), Chap. 3, p. 55.
  26. C. A. Harper, ed., Handbook of Plastics and Elastomers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975), Chap. 1, p. 63.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited