We address the problem of shaping the radiant intensity distribution of a highly nonparaxial coherent field by means of a diffractive element located in the plane of the beam waist. To be capable of wide-angle energy redistribution the element must necessarily contain wavelength-scale transverse features, and consequently it must be designed on the basis of rigorous diffraction theory. We consider, in particular, wide-angle Gaussian to flat-top beam shaping in one dimension. Scalar designs are provided and their validity is evaluated by rigorous diffraction theory, which is also used for optimization deep inside the nonparaxial domain, where the scalar designs fail. Experimental verification is provided by means of electron-beam lithography.
© 1997 Optical Society of America
Markku Kuittinen, Pasi Vahimaa, Marko Honkanen, and Jari Turunen, "Beam shaping in the nonparaxial domain of diffractive optics," Appl. Opt. 36, 2034-2041 (1997)