OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 36, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 1997
  • pp: 2609–2619

Emissivity of rough sea surface for 8–13 µm: modeling and verification

Xiangqian Wu and William L. Smith  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 36, Issue 12, pp. 2609-2619 (1997)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.36.002609


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (446 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The emissivity model for rough sea surface [Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988)] is inspected in light of the measured surface emissivity. In the presence of moderate wind (5 m/s or less), the emissivity model is found to be adequate for small to moderate view angles. For large view angles, the discrepancy between the computed and the measured emissivity is large, but one can reduce this considerably by incorporating the reflected sea surface emission into the emissivity model. In addition, examination of the spectral variation of the observed and computed emissivity suggests the need for refined measurements of the complex refractive index. An improved model is constructed to calculate the rough sea surface emissivity that can be used to provide accurate estimates of sea surface skin temperatures from remotely sensed radiometric measurements. An important feature of the improved model is that the computed sea surface emissivity is only weakly dependent on wind speed for most view angles used in practice.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: January 2, 1996
Revised Manuscript: September 16, 1996
Published: April 20, 1997

Citation
Xiangqian Wu and William L. Smith, "Emissivity of rough sea surface for 8–13 µm: modeling and verification," Appl. Opt. 36, 2609-2619 (1997)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-36-12-2609


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. F. Webster, M. Fieux, “TOGA overview,” in Large-scale Oceanographic Experiments and Satellites, C. Gautier, M. Fieux, eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1984), pp. 17–24. [CrossRef]
  2. X. Wu, W. L. Smith, “Sensitivity of sea surface temperature retrieval to sea surface emissivity,” ACTA Meteorol. Sinica 10, 376–384 (1996).
  3. F. F. Hall, “The polarized emissivity of water in the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 3, 781–782 (1964). [CrossRef]
  4. P. M. Saunders, “Shadowing on the ocean and the existence of the horizon,” J. Geophys. Res. 72, 4643–4649 (1967). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).
  6. T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity and reflectance of the model sea surface for the use of AVHRR data of NOAA satellites,” Pap. Meteorol. Geophys. 32, 267–274 (1981). [CrossRef]
  7. K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988). [CrossRef]
  8. C. Françcois, C. Ottlé, “Estimation of the angular variation of the sea surface emissivity with the ATSR/ERS-1 data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 48, 302–308 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. Nalli, O. B. Brown, J. Brown, P. J. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–51 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference, and Diffraction of Light, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1989), p. 38.
  11. D. Clarke, J. F. Grainger, Polarized Light and Optical Measurement (Pergamon, New York, 1971), p. 55.
  12. S. Khattak, R. A. Vaughan, A. P. Cracknell, “Sunglint and its observation in AVHRR data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 37, 101–116 (1991). [CrossRef]
  13. G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-µm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Friedman, “Infrared characteristics of ocean water (1.5–15 µ),” Appl. Opt. 8, 2073–2078 (1969). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. C. Blume, H. Huhnerfuss, W. Alpers, “Variation of the microwave brightness temperature of sea surfaces covered with mineral and monomolecular oil films,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing GE-21, 295–300 (1983). [CrossRef]
  16. I. G. Ómuirgheartaigh, E. C. Monahan, “Statistical aspects of the relationship between oceanic whitecap coverage, wind speed, and other environmental factors,” in Oceanic Whitecaps and Their Role in Air-Sea Exchange Processes, E. C. Monahan, G. M. Niocaill, eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1986), pp. 125–128.
  17. D. Lü, “Microwave radiation and remote sensing of natural surfaces,” in Principles of Microwave Radiation and Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, X. J. Zhou, ed. (Science, Beijing, 1982), p. 14.
  18. F. J. Wentz, “A two-scale scattering model for foam-free sea microwave emission and backscattering from the sea surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3441–3446 (1975). [CrossRef]
  19. R. J. Wagner, “Shadowing of randomly rough surfaces,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 138–148 (1967). [CrossRef]
  20. R. A. Brockelman, T. Hagfors, “Note on the effect of shadowing on the backscattering of waves from a random rough surface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 621–626 (1966). [CrossRef]
  21. K. E. Hamilton, “An experimental investigation of the shadowing of random rough surfaces,” M.A. thesis (University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 1966).
  22. K. Yoshimori, K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, “Thermal radiative and reflective characteristics of a wind-roughened water surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1886–1893 (1994). [CrossRef]
  23. K. Yoshimori, K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, “Optical characteristics of a wind-roughened water surface: a two-dimensional theory,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6236–6247 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. K. Masuda, Meteorological Research Institute, 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan (personal communication).
  25. H. Tan, S. Tian, FORTRAN Language (Qinghua, Beijing, 1981), p. 139.
  26. J. Otterman, J. Susskind, G. Dalu, D. Kratz, I. L. Goldber, “Effects of water-emission anisotropy on multispectral remote sensing at thermal wavelengths of ocean temperature and of cirrus clouds,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7633–7646 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. P. Watts, M. Allen, T. Nightingale, “Sea surface emission and reflection for the Along Track Scanning Radiometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 126–141 (1996). [CrossRef]
  28. L. Pontier, C. Dechambenoy, “Détermination des constantes optiques de l’eau liquide entre 1 et 40 µ. Application au calcul de son pouvoir réflecteur et de son émissivté,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 633–641 (1966).
  29. D. J. Segelstein, “The complex refractive index of water,” M.S. thesis (University of Missouri, Kansas City, Missouri, 1981).
  30. D. M. Wieliczka, S. Weng, M. R. Querry, “Wedge shaped cell for highly absorbent liquids: infrared optical constants of water,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1714–1719 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. R. G. Fleagle, J. A. Businger, An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, 2nd ed. (Academic, New York, 1980), p. 210.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited