OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 36, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 1997
  • pp: 2701–2712

Atmospheric CO2 monitoring from space

Jae H. Park  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 36, Issue 12, pp. 2701-2712 (1997)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (500 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A spectroscopic method of monitoring the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio vertical profile from space is described. An experimental design is presented for a solar occultation mode with the O2A band in the visible region to retrieve pressure and temperature profiles first, and then several CO2 bands in the infrared region at 4.3, 2.7, and 2.0 µm to obtain CO2 mixing ratio profiles. Instrument techniques considered are low resolution Fourier transform spectrometry and radiometry of various bandwidths. Simulations indicate that the precision of the pressure, temperature, and CO2 mixing ratio measurements for an altitude region 30–10 km are less than 1%, 1 K, and 1%, respectively, for the case of the Fourier transform spectrometer and approximately 1%, 1 K, and 2% for the case of the radiometer. With careful experimental design, measurements can be made with better precision and also can extend below 10 km. This inferred precision of CO2 may be considered to be good enough for investigating atmospheric dynamics when CO2 is used as a tracer and also for measuring spatial and temporal variations of CO2 mixing ratios in the range of 0.5–6.5% of 350 parts per million by volume in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: June 3, 1996
Revised Manuscript: October 7, 1996
Published: April 20, 1997

Jae H. Park, "Atmospheric CO2 monitoring from space," Appl. Opt. 36, 2701-2712 (1997)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. S. Levine, ed., Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic, and Biospheric Implications, (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1991).
  2. T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22,831–22,855 (1994). [CrossRef]
  3. A. S. Denning, I. Y. Fung, D. Randall, “Latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 due to seasonal exchange with land biota,” Nature (London) 376, 240–242 (1995).
  4. P. P. Tans, T. J. Conway, T. Nakazawa, “Latitudinal distribution of the sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide derived from surface observations and an atmospheric transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 5151–5172 (1989). [CrossRef]
  5. C. S. Potter, J. T. Randerson, C. B. Field, P. A. Matson, P. M. Vitousek, H. A. Mooney, S. A. Klooster, “Terrestrial ecosystem production: a process model based on global satellite and surface data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 811–841 (1993). [CrossRef]
  6. A. S. Denning, “Investigations of the transport, sources, and sinks of atmospheric CO2 using a general circulation model,” (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1994).
  7. E. J. Barron, D. Hartman, D. Schimel, M. Shoeberl, Earth Observing System: Science contributions to national goals and interests (Earth System Science Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa., 1995).
  8. W. Bishof, R. Borchers, P. Fabian, B. C. Kruger, “Increased concentration and vertical distribution of carbon dioxide in the stratosphere,” Nature (London) 316, 708–710 (1985). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Nakajawa, K. Miyashita, S. Aoki, M. Tanaka, “Temporal and spatial variations of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric carbon dioxide,” Tellus B 43, 106–117 (1991). [CrossRef]
  10. U. Schmidt, A. Khedim, “In situ measurements of carbon dioxide in the winter arctic vortex and at midlatitudes: an indicator of the ‘age’ of stratospheric air,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 763–766 (1991). [CrossRef]
  11. K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Lowenstein, J. R. Podolske, E. R. Keim, “Tracer–tracer relationships and lower stratospheric dynamics: CO2 and N2O correlations during SPADE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2567–2570 (1994). [CrossRef]
  12. K. A. Boering, E. J. Hintsa, S. C. Wofsy, J. G. Anderson, B. C. Daube, A. E. Dessler, M. Lowenstein, M. P. McCormick, J. R. Podolske, E. M. Weinstock, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of stratospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor at northern midlatitudes: implications for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2737–2740 (1995). [CrossRef]
  13. T. M. Hall, M. J. Prather, “Simulations of the trend and annual cycle in stratospheric CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,573–10,581 (1993). [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993). [CrossRef]
  15. C. A. Reber, “The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1215–1218 (1993). [CrossRef]
  16. J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, M. A. H. Smith, “Solar occultation sounding of pressure and temperature using narrow band radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2132–2139 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. H. Park, “Analysis and application of Fourier transform spectroscopy in atmospheric remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2604–2613 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. H. Park, “Analysis method for Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 22, 835–849 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992). [CrossRef]
  20. A. Matsuzaki, Y. Nakamura, T. Itoh, “Rocket observation of the rotational profile of the A-band absorption spectrum of atmospheric oxygen molecule,” Ann. Geophys. 4, 475–480 (1984).
  21. W. P. Chu, J. C. Larsen, M. P. McCormick, “Pressure and temperature retrievals from the SAGE III/EOS measurements,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 32–35.
  22. T. Nakajima, Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, “Visible remote sensing algorithms for the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer aboard ADEOS satellite,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation Proceedings of IRS ’92, S. Keevallik, O. Karner, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1992), pp. 383–385.
  23. J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, S. R. Drayson, “Pressure sensing of the atmosphere by solar occultation using broadband CO2 absorption,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1950–1954 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. A. Toth, “Temperature sounding from the absorption spectrum of CO2 at 4.3 µm,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2661–2668 (1977). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using GPS,” Science 271, 1107–1109 (1996). [CrossRef]
  26. M. Suzuki, Y. Sasano, T. Ishigaki, N. Kimura, N. Araki, K. Nakamura, A. Kuze, J. Tanii, “Conceptual design study of ILAS-II onboard ADEOS-II, in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 48–55 (1995). [CrossRef]
  27. J. Giroux, Bomem, Inc., (personal communication, 1996).
  28. G. Guelachvile, “Distortions in Fourier spectra and diagnosis,” in Spectrometric Techniques, G. A. Vanasse, ed., (Academic, New York, 1981), Vol. 2. [CrossRef]
  29. J. H. Park, B. Carli, “Analysis of far-infrared emission Fourier transform spectra,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3490–3501 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996). [CrossRef]
  31. J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996). [CrossRef]
  32. J. M. Russell, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, L. E. Deaver, “Satellite confirmation of the dominance of chlorofluorocarbons in the global stratospheric chlorine budget,” Nature (London) 379, 526–528 (1996).
  33. M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995). [CrossRef]
  34. C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, “High resolution infrared spectroscopy from space: A preliminary report on the results of the atmospheric trace molecule (ATMOS) experiment on Spacelab 3,” (1986).
  35. American Geophysical Union, Special Issue on UARS, Geophys. Res. Lett. 20(12) (1993).
  36. American Geophysical Union, Special Issue on UARS, J. Atmos. Sci. 51(20) (1995).
  37. American Geophysical Union, Special Issue on UARS, J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D6) (1996).
  38. J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, J. E. Harries, R. J. Cicerone, P. J. Crutzen, “HALOE Antarctic observations in the spring of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 719–722 (1993). [CrossRef]
  39. R. B. Pierce, W. L. Grose, J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, “Evolution of southern hemisphere spring air masses observed by HALOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 213–216 (1993). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited