OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 36, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 1997
  • pp: 2763–2769

Improving fiber-optic laser beam delivery by incorporating GRADIUM optics

Boyd V. Hunter and Keng H. Leong  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 36, Issue 13, pp. 2763-2769 (1997)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (459 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The performance of a fiber-optic laser beam delivery system strongly depends on the fiber and the optics used to image the fiber face on the workpiece. We have compared off-the-shelf homogenous (BK7) and GRADIUM (axial-gradient) singlets to determine what improvement the GRADIUM offers in practice to the typical laser user. The realized benefit for this application, although significant, is much smaller than would be realized by a conventional imaging application. The figure of merit for laser-based materials processing is the 86% energy-enclosure radius, which is not directly supported by commercial ray-tracing software. Therefore empirical rules of thumb are presented to understand when GRADIUM (or any other well-corrected optics) will yield meaningful improvements to the beam delivery system.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: March 21, 1996
Revised Manuscript: August 19, 1996
Published: May 1, 1997

Boyd V. Hunter and Keng H. Leong, "Improving fiber-optic laser beam delivery by incorporating GRADIUM optics," Appl. Opt. 36, 2763-2769 (1997)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. J. Nonhof, Material Processing with Nd Lasers (Electrochemical Publications, Ayr, Scotland, 1988), p. 182.
  2. K. H. Leong, B. V. Hunter, “High-power fiberoptic laser beam delivery moves forward,” Ind. Laser Rev. 11, 7–12 (1996).
  3. B. V. Hunter, K. H. Leong, C. B. Miller, J. F. Golden, R. D. Glesias, P. J. Laverty, “Selecting a high-power fiber-optic laser beam delivery system,” in Laser Materials Processing: New Developments in Laser Sources and Applications, W. Duley, K. Shibata, R. Poprawe, eds., Proc. ICALEO81E, 173–182 (1996).
  4. P. J. Sands, “Third-order aberrations of inhomogeneous lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1436–1443 (1970); “Inhomogeneous lenses II. Chromatic paraxial aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 777–783 (1971); “Inhomogeneous lenses III. Paraxial optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 879–885 (1971); “Inhomogeneous lenses IV. Aberrations of lenses with axial index distributions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1086–1091 (1971); “Inhomogeneous lenses V. Chromatic paraxial aberrations of lenses with axial or cylindrical index distributions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1495–1500 (1971); “Inhomogeneous lenses VI. Derivatives of paraxial coefficients,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1210–1216 (1973). [CrossRef]
  5. P. K. Manhart, K. R. Castle, M. C. Ruda, T. W. Stuhlinger, “Advantages of non-linear axial gradients in optical design,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering III, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE2000, 379–388 (1993). [CrossRef]
  6. R. J. Pagano, K. Perkins, P. K. Manhart, “Axial gradient-index lenses come of age,” Laser Focus World 31, 191–196 (1995).
  7. R. D. Jones, T. R. Scott, “Laser-beam analysis pinpoints critical parameters,” Laser Focus World 29, 123–130 (1993).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited