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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 36, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 1997
  • pp: 2956–2962

Scattering by layered structures with rough surfaces: comparison of polarimetric optical scatterometer measurements with theory

Ezekiel Bahar and Robert D. Kubik  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 36, Issue 13, pp. 2956-2962 (1997)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.36.002956


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Abstract

A laboratory model of a layered structure with a rough upper surface (a glass microscope slide cut with a diamond saw) is used to obtain optical polarimetric data. Scatterometer measurements were made of all the Mueller matrix elements associated with light scattered in arbitrary directions. (A preliminary measurement of scattering from a smooth opaque gold film on a silicon wafer was used to validate the calculation of the Mueller matrix elements.) These measurements are compared with corresponding analytical solutions based on the full-wave approach. Physical interpretations of the analytical solutions that account for scattering upon reflection and transmission across rough interfaces are given in a companion paper. The agreement between calculations and measurements suggests that the full wave, polarimetric solutions can provide a reliable database for electromagnetic detection of rough surfaces in remote-sensing applications.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: September 30, 1995
Revised Manuscript: October 11, 1996
Published: May 1, 1997

Citation
Ezekiel Bahar and Robert D. Kubik, "Scattering by layered structures with rough surfaces: comparison of polarimetric optical scatterometer measurements with theory," Appl. Opt. 36, 2956-2962 (1997)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-36-13-2956


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References

  1. E. Bahar, R. D. Kubik, “Measurements from polarimetric optical bistatic scatterometer,” in Conference Proceedings of the Combined Optical-Microwave Earth and Atmosphere Sensing (IEEE Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1993), pp. 173–176.
  2. E. Bahar, Y. Zhang, “Measurements of the Mueller matrix elements using a fully polarimetric optical scatterometer,” in Conference Proceedings of the Combined Optical-Microwave Earth and Atmosphere Sensing (IEEE Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1995), pp. 208–210. [CrossRef]
  3. R. D. Kubik, “Scattering and depolarization upon transmission across and multiple reflections from irregular multi-layered structures,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, Neb., 1993).
  4. E. Bahar, B. S. Lee, “Full wave solutions for rough surface bistatic radar cross sections—comparison with small perturbation, physical optics solutions numerical and experimental results,” Radio Sci. 29, 407–429 (1994). [CrossRef]
  5. E. Bahar, R. D. Kubik, “Computations of the Mueller matrix elements for scattering from layered structures with rough surfaces, with applications to optical detection,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1–9 (1997).
  6. M. I. Sancer, “Shadow corrected electromagnetic scattering from a randomly rough surface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-17, 577–585 (1968).
  7. E. Bahar, M. A. Fitzwater, “Shadowing by non-Gaussian rough surfaces for which decorrelation implies statistical independence,” Radio Sci. 18, 566–572 (1983). [CrossRef]
  8. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. 1 (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).
  9. F. E. Nicodemus, “Reflectance nomenclature and directional reflectance and emmissivity,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1747–1475 (1970). [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).
  11. P. Beckman, Orthogonal Polynomials for Engineers and Physicists (Golem, Boulder, Colo., 1973).
  12. E. Bahar, Y. F. Lee, “Scattering cross sections of non-Gaussian rough surfaces: unified full wave approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 39, 1777–1781 (1991). [CrossRef]
  13. S. M. Haugland, E. Bahar, A. H. Carrieri, “Polarized IR scattering used to identify contaminant coatings over rough surfaces,” in Proceedings of the 1991 Scientific Conference on Obscuration and Aerosol Research (Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, U.S. Army Armament, Munitions and Chemical Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., 1992), pp. 143–155.
  14. E. Bahar, M. A. Fitzwater, “Full wave physical models of nonspecular scattering in irregular stratified media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 1609–1615 (1989). [CrossRef]
  15. E. Bahar, J. R. Wait, “Propagation in a model terrestrial waveguide of nonuniform height, theory and experiment,” Radio Sci. J. Res. 69D, 1445–1463 (1965).

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