OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 36, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 1997
  • pp: 2979–2983

Contrast limits of coherence-gated imaging in scattering media

Yingtian Pan, Reginald Birngruber, and Ralf Engelhardt  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 36, Issue 13, pp. 2979-2983 (1997)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (386 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The fundamental difference between time-resolved and coherence-gated imaging modalities in scattering media is analyzed in terms of their optical transfer functions. The effectiveness of coherence gating for multiple-scattering rejection is shown by imaging a 100-µm-thick razor blade hidden in the scattering phantoms (i.e., Intralipid suspensions) with different scattering coefficients. We found that the imaging contrast is limited by multiple scattering and speckle effects in high-scattering media, and the measured effective penetration depth of optical coherence tomography is approximately equal to six mean free paths under the experimental conditions of a numerical aperture of less than 0.1 and a scattering anisotropy of approximately 0.8.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: November 30, 1995
Revised Manuscript: September 13, 1996
Published: May 1, 1997

Yingtian Pan, Reginald Birngruber, and Ralf Engelhardt, "Contrast limits of coherence-gated imaging in scattering media," Appl. Opt. 36, 2979-2983 (1997)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight absorbance imaging of biomedical media,” Science 259, 1443–1446 (1993). [CrossRef]
  2. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” in Ophthalmic Techniques III, J. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE1877, 136–144 (1993). [CrossRef]
  4. D. Huang, J. Wang, C.-P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Laser Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991). [CrossRef]
  5. Y.-T. Pan, R. Birngruber, R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis and experimental results,” in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring, H. Foth, R. Marchesini, H. Podbielska, H. Schneckenburger, M. Robert-Nicaud, eds., Proc. SPIE2628, 239–248 (1995). [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5699–5707 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y.-T. Pan, R. Birngruber, J. Rosperich, R. Engelhardt, “Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6564–6574 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y.-T Pan, R. Engelhardt, J. Rosperich, G. Huettmann, R. Birngruber, “Measurement of optical-transport coefficients of Intralipid in visible and NIR range,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 354–363 (1994).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited