Two methods of producing the long pulse lengths that promote efficient extraction of energy from low-gain, quasi-four-level lasers are analyzed. A long pulse length output can mitigate laser-induced damage effects and can be generated in quasi-four-level lasers by two disparate methods. One method utilizes <i>Q</i>-switching techniques in resonators designed to extend the pulse length and another utilizes the first pulse in a relaxation oscillation pulse train. Models for quasi-four-level lasers are derived here taking into account the nonnegligible thermal population of the lower laser level. Closed-form expressions are derived for both modes of operation of quasi-four-level laser systems so the parametric dependencies of both forms of operation become obvious, allowing facile comparison. In addition, a combined absorption and quantum efficiency, germane for flash-lamp pumping, is calculated for both Cr and Er sensitizers. Although the former has the advantage of broad absorption bands, the latter has the advantage of a quantum efficiency approaching 3.
© 1997 Optical Society of America
Norman P. Barnes, Keith E. Murray, and Mahendra G. Jani, "Flash-lamp-pumped Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG and Ho:Tm:Er:YLF lasers: modeling of a single, long pulse length comparison," Appl. Opt. 36, 3363-3374 (1997)