OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 36, Iss. 18 — Jun. 20, 1997
  • pp: 4043–4054

High-resolution absorption measurements by use of two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy with diode lasers

Viacheslav G. Avetisov and Peter Kauranen  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 36, Issue 18, pp. 4043-4054 (1997)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (353 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The capability of two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy (TTFMS) in deriving spectral line-shape information was investigated. Two oxygen A-band transitions at 760 nm were selected, and the Voigt profile and two different collisionally narrowed line profiles were employed in their analysis. By means of a least-squares fitting procedure, we obtained accurate information regarding transition strengths and pressure-induced broadening, shift, and narrowing coefficients. Both TTFMS and direct absorption line shapes were modeled with deviations as small as 0.3% over a wide pressure range by use of the collisionally narrowed line profiles. Line parameters measured with TTFMS showed excellent agreement with the parameters measured with direct absorption. The experimental technique used constant-current fast-wavelength scanning, which improved measurement accuracy.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: December 11, 1995
Revised Manuscript: August 16, 1996
Published: June 20, 1997

Viacheslav G. Avetisov and Peter Kauranen, "High-resolution absorption measurements by use of two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy with diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 36, 4043-4054 (1997)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. C. Bloch, R. W. Fied, G. H. Hall, T. J. Sears, “Time-resolved frequency modulation spectroscopy of photochemical transients,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 1717–1720 (1994). [CrossRef]
  2. D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, N. K. J. M. Gopaul, “Multiplexed diode-laser sensor system for simultaneous H2O, O2, and temperature measurements,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1900–1902 (1994). [CrossRef]
  3. P. Kauranen, I. Harwigsson, B. Jönsson, “Relative vapor pressure measurements using a frequency-modulated tuneable diode laser, a tool for water activity determination in solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 1411–1415 (1994). [CrossRef]
  4. P. Kauranen, H. M. Hertz, S. Svanberg, “Tomographic imaging of fluid flows by the use of two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1498–1500 (1994). [CrossRef]
  5. D. A. Glenar, D. E. Jennings, S. Nadler, “Electrooptic modulation methods for high sensitivity tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2282–2288 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Riris, C. B. Carlisle, L. W. Carr, D. E. Cooper, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Design of an open path near-infrared diode laser sensor: application to oxygen, water, and carbon dioxide vapor detection,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7059–7066 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. G. Moses, C. L. Tang, “High-sensitivity laser wavelength-modulation spectroscopy,” Opt.Lett. 1, 115–117 (1977).
  8. G. C. Bjorklund, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy: a new method for measuring weak absorptions and dispersions,” Opt. Lett. 5, 15–17 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. R. Janik, C. B. Carlisle, T. F. Gallagher, “Two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” J.Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1070–1074 (1986). [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. Silver, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: theory and comparison among experimental methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 707–717 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, C. Bräuchle, “Quantum-limited FM spectroscopy with a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 99–108 (1989). [CrossRef]
  12. C. B. Carlisle, D. E. Cooper, H. Preier, “Quantum noise-limited FM spectroscopy with a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2567–2576 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. C. Wong, J. L. Hall, “High-resolution measurement of water-vapor overtone absorption in the visible by frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2300–2308 (1989). [CrossRef]
  14. P. Kauranen, V. G. Avetisov, “Determination of absorption line parameters using two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy with diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 106, 213–217 (1994). [CrossRef]
  15. V. G. Avetisov, P. Kauranen, “Two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy for quantitative measurements of gaseous species: theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigation of line shapes,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4705–4723 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. P. Arroyo, S. Langlois, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser absorption technique for simultaneous measurements of multiple gasdynamic parameters in high-speed flows containing water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3296–3307 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. C. Philippe, R. K. Hanson, “Laser diode wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature, pressure, and velocity in shock-heated oxygen flows,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6090–6103 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. M. Supplee, E. A. Whittaker, W. Lenth, “Theoretical description of frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6294–6302 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers: comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl.Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
  20. N. Goldstein, S. Adler-Golden, J. Lee, F. Bien, “Measurement of molecular concentrations and line parameters using line-locked second harmonic spectroscopy with an AlGaAs diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3409–3415 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. Y. Lau, A. Yariv, “Intermodulation distortion in a directly modulated semiconductor injection laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1034–1036 (1984). [CrossRef]
  22. G. P. Agrawal, N. K. Dutta, Long-wavelength Semiconductor Lasers (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1986). [CrossRef]
  23. S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, T. Kimura, “Direct frequency modulation in GaAlAs semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 582–595 (1982). [CrossRef]
  24. V. G. Avetisov, P. Kauranen, “A software method for improving the performance characteristics of a conventional digitizing oscilloscope,” Lund Reports on Atom. Phys. 158 (1994).
  25. Y. V. Kosichkin, A. I. Nadezhdinskii, E. V. Stepanov, “Diode laser spectroscopy of collisional broadening in the spectra of polyatomic molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 43, 499–509 (1990). [CrossRef]
  26. V. G. Avetisov, A. I. Nadezhdinskii, A. N. Khusnutdinov, P. M. Omarova, M. V. Zyrianov, “Diode laser spectroscopy of water vapor in 1.8 µm: line profile measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 160, 326–334 (1993). [CrossRef]
  27. D. S. Bomse, A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. Galatry, “Simultaneous effect of Doppler and foreign gas broadening on spectral shapes,” Phys. Rev. 122, 1218–1223 (1961). [CrossRef]
  29. S. G. Rautian, I. I. Sobelman, “Effect of collisions on the Doppler broadening of spectral lines,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 9, 701–716 (1967). [CrossRef]
  30. F. Herbert, “Spectrum line profiles: a generalized Voigt function including collisional narrowing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 943–951 (1974). [CrossRef]
  31. P. L. Varghese, R. K. Hanson, “Collisional narrowing effects on spectral line shapes measured at high resolution,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2376–2385 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. G. Morthier, F. Libbrecht, K. David, P. Vankwikelberge, R. G. Baets, “Theoretical investigation of the second-order harmonic distortion in the AM response of 1.55 µm F-P and DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1990–2002 (1991). [CrossRef]
  33. K. J. Ritter, T. D. Wilkerson, “High-resolution spectroscopy of the oxygen A band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 121, 1–19 (1987). [CrossRef]
  34. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992). [CrossRef]
  35. K. J. Ritter, “A high resolution spectroscopic study of absorption line profiles in the A-band of molecular oxygen,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Maryland, College Park, Md., 1986).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited