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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 36, Iss. 22 — Aug. 1, 1997
  • pp: 5499–5507

Reflectance measurements on clean surfaces for the determination of optical constants of silicon in the extreme ultraviolet–soft-x-ray region

Regina Soufli and Eric M. Gullikson  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 36, Issue 22, pp. 5499-5507 (1997)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.36.005499


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Abstract

The refractive index n = 1 - δ + iβ of Si in the energy range 50–180 eV is investigated with angle-dependent reflectance measurements. The optical constants δ and β are both determined by fitting to the Fresnel equations. The results of this method are compared with the values in the atomic tables derived from experimental data for β and implementation of the Kramers–Kronig relations for δ. The samples were prepared by UV irradiation and HF:ethanol dipping to H passivate the surface. It is found that the values of δ in the atomic tables are 8–15% too high in the region 50–90 eV. This is attributed to missing oscillator strength in the tabulated absorption coefficient for Si. The measured values of β for crystalline Si exhibit structure below the L2,3 edge (99.8 eV), as was previously observed in transmission measurements of Si(111). It is also found that the method of least-squares fitting reflectance data to obtain optical constants is most effective for energies well below the edge, where δ > β, while for a range of energies around and above the edge, where δ < β, the optical constants are determined with large uncertainties. This behavior is not unique to the Si L2,3 edge.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: June 3, 1996
Revised Manuscript: October 24, 1996
Published: August 1, 1997

Citation
Regina Soufli and Eric M. Gullikson, "Reflectance measurements on clean surfaces for the determination of optical constants of silicon in the extreme ultraviolet–soft-x-ray region," Appl. Opt. 36, 5499-5507 (1997)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-36-22-5499

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