## Nonlinear least-squares and phase-shifting quantization methods for diffractive optical element design

Applied Optics, Vol. 36, Issue 29, pp. 7297-7306 (1997)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.36.007297

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### Abstract

A new, to our knowledge, design method for diffractive optical elements (DOE’s) is described and compared with existing methods. The technique applies a nonlinear least-squares algorithm to design two-dimensional pure phase DOE’s that reconstruct a desired diffraction pattern with high uniformity, efficiency, and signal-to-noise ratio. The technique also uses a phase-shifting quantization procedure that greatly reduces the quantization error for DOE’s to a minimum level. In this paper, we compare simulated reconstruction results of DOE’s designed by use of these methods with results obtained by the commonly used two-stage iterative Fourier transform design algorithm of Wyrowski. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 961, (1990)].

© 1997 Optical Society of America

**History**

Original Manuscript: December 23, 1996

Revised Manuscript: April 14, 1997

Published: October 10, 1997

**Citation**

Chih-hao Chen and A. A. Sawchuk, "Nonlinear least-squares and phase-shifting quantization methods for diffractive optical element design," Appl. Opt. **36**, 7297-7306 (1997)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-36-29-7297

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