We have extended the Wang–Gordon [Appl. Opt. <b>32</b>, 4598–4609 (1993)] and Gordon–Zhang [Appl. Opt.<b>34</b>, 5552–5555 (1995)] algorithms for retrieval of ω<sub>0</sub><i>P</i>(Φ, where ω<sub>0</sub> is the aerosol single-scattering albedo and <i>P</i>(Φ) is the aerosol phase function for scattering through an angle Φ, from measurement of the radiances exiting the top and the bottom of the atmosphere over the ocean, to include polarization. This permits derivation of the <i>P</i><sub>11</sub>(Φ) and <i>P</i><sub>12</sub>(Φ) elements of the Mueller scattering phase matrix <b>P</b>(Φ) from measurement of the linear polarization portion of the Stokes vectors associated with the radiance exiting the top and the bottom of the atmosphere. Simulations show that good retrievals are possible for aerosol optical thicknesses as large as 2; however, the atmosphere is required to be horizontally homogeneous. We study the influence of the elements of <b>P</b>(Φ) that cannot be determined in this manner. It is shown that including surface measurements of the linear polarization of the sky radiance improves the estimation of the radiance simultaneously exiting the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and also allows reasonably accurate estimates of the TOA polarization. This is important for in-orbit calibration of ocean-color sensors.
© 1997 Optical Society of America
Tianming Zhang and Howard R. Gordon, "Retrieval of elements of the columnar aerosol scattering phase matrix from polarized sky radiance over the ocean: simulations," Appl. Opt. 36, 7948-7959 (1997)