OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 36, Iss. 34 — Dec. 1, 1997
  • pp: 8909–8918

Development of a detector-based absolute spectral irradiance scale in the 380–900-nm spectral range

Petri Kärhä, Pasi Toivanen, Farshid Manoochehri, and Erkki Ikonen  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 36, Issue 34, pp. 8909-8918 (1997)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (430 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A detector-based absolute scale for spectral irradiance in the 380–900-nm wavelength region has been developed and tested at the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT). Derivation of the scale and its use for photometric and colorimetric measurements are described. A thorough characterization of a filter radiometer, constructed from a reflection trap detector, a precision aperture, and a set of seven temperature-controlled bandpass filters, is presented. A detailed uncertainty analysis of the scale indicates a relative standard uncertainty of approximately 0.2% throughout most of the wavelength region. The standard uncertainties obtained in measurements of correlated color temperature and luminous intensity of three Osram Wi41/G tungsten–halogen lamps are 2 K and 0.3%, respectively. The spectral irradiance scale is compared with the HUT luminous intensity scale. The agreement of the results at the 0.1% level is well within the combined standard uncertainty of the two scales.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: April 7, 1997
Revised Manuscript: July 14, 1997
Published: December 1, 1997

Petri Kärhä, Pasi Toivanen, Farshid Manoochehri, and Erkki Ikonen, "Development of a detector-based absolute spectral irradiance scale in the 380–900-nm spectral range," Appl. Opt. 36, 8909-8918 (1997)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. E. Martin, N. P. Fox, P. J. Key, “A cryogenic radiometer for absolute radiometric measurements,” Metrologia 21, 147–155 (1985). [CrossRef]
  2. T. Varpula, H. Seppä, J.-M. Saari, “Optical power calibrator based on a stabilized green He–Ne laser and a cryogenic absolute radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 38, 558–564 (1989). [CrossRef]
  3. P. V. Foukal, C. Hoyt, H. Kochling, P. Miller, “Cryogenic absolute radiometers as laboratory irradiance standards, remote sensing detectors, and pyroheliometers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 988–993 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. P. Fox, “Trap detectors and their properties,” Metrologia 28, 197–202 (1991). [CrossRef]
  5. D. H. Nettleton, T. R. Prior, T. H. Ward, “Improved spectral responsivity scales at the NPL, 400 nm to 20 µm,” Metrologia 30, 425–432 (1993). [CrossRef]
  6. T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, C. L. Cromer, “Realization of a scale of absolute spectral response using the National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4393–4403 (1996).
  7. L. P. Boivin, “Calibration of incandescent lamps for spectral irradiance by means of absolute radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2771–2780 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Carreras, A. Corrons, “Absolute spectroradiometric and photometric scales based on an electrically calibrated pyroelectric radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1174–1177 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. J. Bruening, “Spectral irradiance scales based on filtered absolute silicon photodetectors,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1051–1057 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Corredera, A. Corróns, A. Pons, J. Campos, “Absolute spectral irradiance scale in the 700–2400-nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3530–3534 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. C. Johnson, C. L. Cromer, R. D. Saunders, G. Eppeldauer, J. Fowler, V. I. Sapritsky, G. Dezsi, “A method of realizing spectral irradiance based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer,” Metrologia 30, 309–315 (1993). [CrossRef]
  12. E. Ikonen, P. Kärhä, A. Lassila, F. Manoochehri, H. Fagerlund, L. Liedquist, “Radiometric realization of the candela with a trap detector,” Metrologia 32, 689–692 (1995/1996). [CrossRef]
  13. L. Liedquist, E. Ikonen, P. Kärhä, H. Fagerlund, “Comparison of luminous-intensity scales based on trap detectors and incandescent lamps,” Metrologia 32, 681–684 (1995/1996). [CrossRef]
  14. P. Kärhä, H. Fagerlund, A. Lassila, H. Ludvigsen, F. Manoochehri, E. Ikonen, “Optical power and transmittance measurements and their use in detector-based realization of the luminous intensity scale,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2611–2618 (1995). [CrossRef]
  15. P. Kärhä, R. Visuri, K. Leszczynski, F. Manoochehri, K. Jokela, E. Ikonen, “Detector-based calibration method for high-accuracy solar UV measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 340–343 (1996). [CrossRef]
  16. WG. Czibula, E. Krochmann, “Calibration possibilities of luminous intensity and illuminance,” in 14th Symposium on Photonic Measurements, J. Schanda, T. Lippényi, eds. Proc. SPIE1712, pp. 92–99 (1993). [CrossRef]
  17. J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations,” (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1987).
  18. G. Andor, “New data-reduction method in detector-based spectral-irradiance measurements,” Metrologia 32, 495–496 (1995/1996). [CrossRef]
  19. J. C. De Vos, “A new determination of the emissivity of tungsten ribbon,” Physica 20, 690–714 (1954). [CrossRef]
  20. Comission Internationale de l’Eclairage, “Colorimetry,” (CIE, Paris, 1986).
  21. Comission Internationale de l’Eclairage, “The basis of physical photometry,” (CIE, Paris, 1983).
  22. J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (Dover, New York, 1965).
  23. P. Toivanen, H. Nyberg, P. Kärhä, A. Lassila, F. Manoochechri, E. Ikonen, “Detector-based realisation of the candela,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO) World Congress, Vol. 2, J. Halttunen, ed. (Finnish Society of Automation, Helsinki, 1997), pp. 114–119.
  24. Hamamatsu Photodiodes Catalog 1991 (Hamamatsu Photonics K. K., Hamamatsu City, Japan, 1991), p. 4.
  25. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1965), pp. 40, 632–633.
  26. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, New York, 1985), pp. 547–569.
  27. I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1205–1209 (1965). [CrossRef]
  28. J. Geist, D. Chandler-Horowitz, R. Köhler, A. M. Robinson, C. R. James, “Numerical modeling of short-wavelength internal quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 28, 193–196 (1991). [CrossRef]
  29. F. Manoochehri, E. Ikonen, “High-accuracy spectrometer for measurement of regular spectral transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3686–3692 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. F. Manoochehri, A. Haapalinna, E. Ikonen, “High-accuracy measurement of regular spectral transmittance and reflectance in UV-visible-NIR,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO) World Congress, Vol. 2, J. Halttunen, ed. (Finnish Society of Automation, Helsinki, 1997), pp. 108–113.
  31. A. Lassila, E. Ikonen, K. Riski, “Interferometer for calibration of graduated line scales with a moving CCD camera as a line detector,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3600–3603 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. L. P. Boivin, “Environmental corrections in absolute radiometry,” in Absolute Radiometry, F. Hengstberger, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), pp. 170–180. [CrossRef]
  33. A. Lassila, P. Toivanen, E. Ikonen, “An optical method for direct determination of the radiometric aperture area at high accuracy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 973–977 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited