OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 36, Iss. 6 — Feb. 20, 1997
  • pp: 1223–1234

Real-time precision refractometry: new approaches

Mark L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 36, Issue 6, pp. 1223-1234 (1997)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.36.001223


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (371 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We introduce two new approaches for near-real-time, high-precision tracking of the refractive index of the ambient atmosphere. The methods can be realized at low cost and are expected to have important practical application in those accurate dimensional metrology applications employing interferometry in air. A valuable potential application is the control of step-and-repeat mask positioning for integrated circuit production in which temporal stability time scales over days can be crucial. Extension of the methods to absolute index measurement is discussed.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: September 11, 1995
Revised Manuscript: March 25, 1996
Published: February 20, 1997

Citation
Mark L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, "Real-time precision refractometry: new approaches," Appl. Opt. 36, 1223-1234 (1997)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-36-6-1223


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. P. Schellekens, G. Wilkening, F. Reinboth, M. J. Downs, K. P. Birch, J. Spronck, “Measurements of the refractive index of air using interference refractometers,” Metrologia 22, 279–287 (1986). Our quoted formula contains the 103 correction for the misprint of their D term, as noted by C. Rischel, P. S. Ramanujam, “Refractive index of air: errata,” Metrologia 26, 263 (1989).
  2. B. Edlén, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966). [CrossRef]
  3. H. Barrell, J. E. Sears, “The refraction and dispersion of air for the visible spectrum,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 238, 1–64 (1939). [CrossRef]
  4. K. P. Birch, M. J. Downs, “The Precise Determination of the Refractive Index of Air,” , July (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, U.K., 1988).
  5. R. Muijlwijk, “Update of the Edlén formula for the refractive index of air,” Metrologia 25, 189 (1988). [CrossRef]
  6. K. P. Birch, M. J. Downs, “The results of a comparison between calculated and measured values of the refractive index of air,” J. Phys. E 21, 694–695 (1988); “An updated Edlén equation for the refractive index of air,” Metrologia 30, 155–162 (1993); Metrologia 31, 315–316(E) (1994). [CrossRef]
  7. F. E. Jones, “The refractivity of air,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 83, 27–32 (1981). [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Owens, “Optical refractive index of air: dependence on pressure, temperature and composition,” Appl. Opt. 6, 51–59 (1967). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Portable Pressure Gauge, Model 6200, Ruska Instrument Corp., Houston, Texas.
  10. Mention of specific products and manufacturers is for the purpose of technical communication only and does not constitute an endorsement nor does it imply that products from other manufacturers would be less suitable.
  11. Ruska Instrument Corp., Houston, Texas (personal communication, 13July1993).
  12. AS115 Four-Wire Thermistor Standard, Thermometrics, Edison, N.J.
  13. Thermometrics, Edison, N.J. (personal communication, 7July1993).
  14. Model 3478 A 5-1/2 digit multimeter, Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto, Calif.
  15. Model 200 DewTrak Humidity Transmitter, EG&G Environmental, Burlington, Mass.
  16. J. A. Goff, “Saturation pressure of water on the new Kelvin scale,” in Humidity and Moisture. Measurement and Control in Science and Industry. Vol. 3. Fundamentals and Standards, A. Wexler, W. A. Wildhack, eds., (Reinhold, New York, 1965), pp. 289–292.
  17. ©Microsoft Corp.
  18. This refractometer approach is described by J. L. Hall, P. J. Martin, M. L. Eickhoff, M. P. Winters, “Highly accurate in-situ determination of the refractivity of an ambient atmosphere,” U.S. patent5,218,426 (8June1993).
  19. M. Zhu, J. L. Hall, “Short and long term stability of optical oscillators,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Frequency Control Symposium, IEEE Catalog No. 92CH3083-3 (IEEE, New York, 1992), pp. 44–55; J. L. Hall, “Frequency stabilized lasers—a parochial review,” in Frequency-Stabilized Lasers and Their Applications, Y. C. Chung, ed., Proc. SPIE1837, 2–15 (1993).
  20. K. Kinosita, “Numerical evaluation of the intensity curve or a multiple-beam Fizeau fringe,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 8, 219–225 (1953). [CrossRef]
  21. A. D. White, “Frequency stabilization of gas lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 349–357 (1965). [CrossRef]
  22. Type 007 internal mirror He–Ne laser tube, Spectra Physics, Mountain View, Calif. Present experiments with 633-nm external cavity diode lasers also seem promising.
  23. M. D. Rayman, C. G. Aminoff, J. L. Hall, “Precise laser frequency scanning using frequency-synthesized optical frequency sidebands,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 539–549 (1989). [CrossRef]
  24. HP 8660 C Synthesized Frequency Generator or HP 30860 RF Sweep Generator, Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto, Calif.
  25. D. Hils, J. L. Hall, “Response of a Fabry-Perot cavity to phase-modulated light,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1406–1412 (1987). [CrossRef]
  26. W. Lichten, “Precise wavelength measurements and optical phase shifts. II. Applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 909–915 (1986). [CrossRef]
  27. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980).
  28. However, because of the curved mirrors, there is a substantial diffractive phase shift. This can be determined to high precision by measurement of off-axis modes. However, it often turns out to be difficult to determine the diffraction correction with sufficient accuracy, so one usually uses these high-finesse interferometers to determine differences between nearby optical frequencies. Some precise measurements with ultrastable cavities with high finesse will be reported separately.
  29. M. Andersson, L. Eliasson, L. R. Pendrill, “Compressible Fabry-Perot refractometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4835–4840 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. L. Hall, “Frequency-stabilized lasers: a driving force for new spectroscopies,” in Frontiers of Laser Spectroscopy, T. W. Hädansch, M. Inguscio, eds. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1994), pp. 217–239.
  31. J. J. Snyder, “Algorithm for fast digital analysis of interference fringes,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1223–1225 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. P. Winters (personal communication, 1988).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited