OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 10 — Apr. 1, 1998
  • pp: 1895–1902

Polarization analyses of aerial images produced by an optical lithography system

Yasuyuki Unno  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 10, pp. 1895-1902 (1998)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (284 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The influence of polarization on the image formation of one-dimensional periodic patterns in a projection optical lithography system has been investigated. Assuming a linear polarizer at the lens pupil, I derived a simple expression representing the image intensity as the summation over spatial-frequency harmonics as well as three orthogonal polarizations. I calculated the coefficient for each image component as a function of the pattern frequency by independently varying the degree of partial coherence such that the image qualities of the two extreme polarization cases could be thoroughly compared.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.2990) Imaging systems : Image formation theory
(110.5220) Imaging systems : Photolithography
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

Original Manuscript: August 4, 1997
Revised Manuscript: November 10, 1997
Published: April 1, 1998

Yasuyuki Unno, "Polarization analyses of aerial images produced by an optical lithography system," Appl. Opt. 37, 1895-1902 (1998)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. Rai-Choudhury, ed., Microlithography, Vol. 1 of Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, and Microfabrication (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997).
  2. M. D. Levenson, N. S. Viswanathan, R. A. Simpson, “Improving resolution in photolithography with a phase-shifting mask,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-29, 1828–1836 (1982). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Suzuki, M. Noguchi, “Sub-half micron exposure system with optimized illumination,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E76-C, 13–18 (1993).
  4. H. Fukuda, T. Terasawa, S. Okazaki, “Spatial filtering for depth of focus enhancement in optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3113–3116 (1991). [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Unno, “Polarization effect of illumination light,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography VI, J. D. Cuthbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1927, 879–891 (1993). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Asai, I. Hanyu, M. Takikawa, “Resolution limit for optical lithography using polarized light illumination,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 32, 5863–5866 (1993). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), Chap. 10.
  8. R. E. Swing, J. R. Glay, “Ambiguity of the transfer function with partially coherent illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1180–1189 (1967). [CrossRef]
  9. R. J. Becherer, G. B. Parrent, “Nonlinearity in optical imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1479–1486 (1967). [CrossRef]
  10. M. S. Yeung, “Modeling high numerical aperture optical lithography,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography, B. J. Lin, ed., Proc. SPIE922, 149–164 (1988).
  11. K. Matsumoto, T. Tsuruta, “Issues and method of designing lenses for optical lithography,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2657–2664 (1992). [CrossRef]
  12. D. G. Flagello, T. Milster, A. E. Rosenbluth, “Theory of high-NA imaging in homogeneous thin films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 53–64 (1996). [CrossRef]
  13. C. A. Mack, “Photoresist process optimization,” in KTI Microelectronics Seminar Interface ’87 (KTI Chemicals, Sunnyvale, Calif.1987), pp. 153–167.
  14. F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), Chap. 9.
  15. B. Richards, E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358–379 (1959). [CrossRef]
  16. T. Tsuruta, Oyo Kogaku (Baifu-kan, Tokyo, 1990), Chap. 2 (in Japanese).
  17. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).
  18. J. J. Stamnes, Waves in Focal Regions (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1986), Chap. 16.
  19. E. C. Kintner, “Method for the calculation of partially coherent imagery,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2747–2753 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited