We present a theoretical model in which the band-transport equations and the coupled-wave equations are considered to study the two thermal-fixing methods (simultaneous fixing and postfixing) in Fe:LiNbO3. We found that, in simultaneous fixing, the existing ionic-grating affects the writing of the electronic grating by reduction of the coupling gain, and the grating envelope of the fixed-index grating is quite uniform inside the photorefractive crystal in comparison with the method of postfixing. The resulting diffraction efficiency of the fixed-volume grating is dependent mainly on the initial intensity modulation of the two writing beams. A set of experiments is also presented.
© 1998 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: June 6, 1997
Revised Manuscript: September 25, 1997
Published: April 10, 1998
Bo Liu, Liren Liu, and Liangying Xu, "Characteristics of recording and thermal fixing in lithium niobate," Appl. Opt. 37, 2170-2176 (1998)