A volume grating for outcoupling and line focusing of waveguided infrared light is designed and optimized. A local grating vector approach is used in combination with the rigorous coupled-wave analysis. By design, this volume grating coupler is holographically constructed on top of a waveguide by the interference of two coherent 364-nm ultraviolet waves formed with two aberration-optimized cylindrical lenses. This focusing coupler exhibits preferential-order coupling (92.9%) into the cover as well as very low focal intensity side lobes. This is accomplished through a chirped, slanted-fringe volume grating with a designed spatial variation in the attenuation coefficient (describing the outcoupling of the guided mode) along the length of the grating. This is achieved by a specific variation in the grating slant angle along the grating length. By design, the 1000-μm-length coupler focuses an 850-nm infrared guided wave to a line with an intensity FWHM of 3.32 μm and a 90% power width of 5.53 μm at a focal distance of 4 mm directly above the grating. Its performance is compared with that of a corresponding electron-beam-written surface-relief coupler design.
© 1998 Optical Society of America
(050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(090.7330) Holography : Volume gratings
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
Stephen M. Schultz, Elias N. Glytsis, and Thomas K. Gaylord, "Design of a High-Efficiency Volume Grating Coupler for Line Focusing," Appl. Opt. 37, 2278-2287 (1998)