Passive ridge waveguides can be deposited on silicon by a solvent-assisted lithographic process incorporating simple mask technology and photosensitive solgel-derived glasses. Thick films (~4 μm) are dip coated in one step, and channel waveguides and power splitters are imprinted in them by UV light through appropriate masks. Unexposed regions of the glass are removed by soaking of the films in <i>n</i>-propanol. The remaining ridges are then treated at 200 °C and planarized with a solgel cladding layer. Circular mode profiles are observed from ridge guides covered with the cladding. The waveguides are characterized with scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, surface profilometry, ellipsometry, and fiber end coupling. Overall, the procedure is simple and reproducible and leads to waveguides with low loss, of the order of 0.13 dB/cm.
© 1998 Optical Society of America
Amir Fardad, Mark Andrews, Galina Milova, Ali Malek-Tabrizi, and Iraj Najafi, "Fabrication of Ridge Waveguides: A New Solgel Route," Appl. Opt. 37, 2429-2434 (1998)