OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 1998
  • pp: 2429–2434

Fabrication of ridge waveguides: a new solgel route

Amir Fardad, Mark Andrews, Galina Milova, Ali Malek-Tabrizi, and Iraj Najafi  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 12, pp. 2429-2434 (1998)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1046 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Passive ridge waveguides can be deposited on silicon by a solvent-assisted lithographic process incorporating simple mask technology and photosensitive solgel-derived glasses. Thick films (∼4 μm) are dip coated in one step, and channel waveguides and power splitters are imprinted in them by UV light through appropriate masks. Unexposed regions of the glass are removed by soaking of the films in n-propanol. The remaining ridges are then treated at 200 °C and planarized with a solgel cladding layer. Circular mode profiles are observed from ridge guides covered with the cladding. The waveguides are characterized with scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, surface profilometry, ellipsometry, and fiber end coupling. Overall, the procedure is simple and reproducible and leads to waveguides with low loss, of the order of 0.13 dB/cm.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.6060) Materials : Solgel
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(260.7190) Physical optics : Ultraviolet

Original Manuscript: July 29, 1997
Published: April 20, 1998

Amir Fardad, Mark Andrews, Galina Milova, Ali Malek-Tabrizi, and Iraj Najafi, "Fabrication of ridge waveguides: a new solgel route," Appl. Opt. 37, 2429-2434 (1998)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. S. Holmes, R. R. Syms, M. Li, M. Green, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides on silicon substrates using spin-on glass,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4916–4921 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990). [CrossRef]
  3. R. R. Syms, “Silica on silicon integrated optics,” in Advances in Integrated Optics, S. Martelluci, A. N. Chester, M. Bertolotti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1994) pp. 121–151. [CrossRef]
  4. M. D. Dvorak, B. L. Justus, D. K. Gasgill, D. G. Hendershot, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction of quantum confined InP nanocrystals grown in porous glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 804–806 (1995). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Ballato, M. Dejneka, R. E. Riman, E. Snitzer, “Sol-gel synthesis of rare-earth-doped fluoride glass thin films,” J. Mater. Res. 11, 841–849 (1996). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Yang, S. C. Saavedra, N. R. Armstrong, J. Hayes, “Fabrication and characterization of low-loss, sol-gel planar waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 66, 1254–1263 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Schmidt, “Thin films, the chemical processing up to gelation,” in Chemistry, Spectroscopy, and Applications of Sol-Gel Glasses, R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, eds. Vol. 77 of Structure and Bonding Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 119–151. [CrossRef]
  8. A. Matsuda, Y. Matsuno, S. Kataoka, S. Katayama, T. Tsuno, N. Tohge, T. Minami, “Pregrooving on glass disks by the sol-gel method: effects of the addition of organic polymers on the formation of glass films in the SiO2–TiO2 system,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. SPIE1328, 71–79 (1990). [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, C.-Y. Li, S. I. Najafi, A. Malek-Tabrizi, “Gratings fabrication by ultraviolet light imprinting and embossing in a sol-gel silica glass,” in Functional Photonics and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 52–56 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. H. Krug, F. Tiefensee, W. P. Olivera, H. Schmidt, “Organic–inorganic composite materials: optical properties of laser patterned and protective coated waveguides,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. SPIE1758, 448–455 (1992). [CrossRef]
  11. H. Krug, N. Merl, H. Schmidt, “Fine patterning in thin sol-gel films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147–148, 447–450 (1992). [CrossRef]
  12. M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1403 (1994). [CrossRef]
  13. C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by ultraviolet light imprinting,” Electron. Lett. 31, 271–272 (1995). [CrossRef]
  14. M. P. Andrews, T. Kanigan, S. I. Najafi, “Auto-embossed Bragg gratings from self-organizing polymers: chemical tuning of periodicity and photoinduced anisotropy,” in Functional Photonics and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 4–15 (1996). [CrossRef]
  15. S. I. Najafi, C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, P. Coudray, A. Malek-Tabrizi, N. Peyghambarian, “Ultraviolet-light-imprinted sol-gel silica glass channel waveguides on silicon,” in Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 38–41 (1996). [CrossRef]
  16. C. J. Brinker, G. W. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science: The Physics and Chemistry of Sol-Gel Processing, (Academic, New York, 1990).
  17. M. A. Fardad, “Catalysts and the structure of SiO2 sol-gel films,” J. Mater. Sci. (to be published).
  18. R. R. A. Syms, V. Schneider, W. Huang, A. S. Holmes, “Low loss achieved in sol-gel based silica-on-silicon integrated optics using borophosphosilicate glass,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1833–1834 (1995). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Mennig, G. Jonschker, H. Schmidt, “Sol-gel-derived thick coatings and their thermomechanical and optical properties,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackenzie, ed., Proc. SPIE1758, 125–134 (1992). [CrossRef]
  20. P. Innocenzi, M. O. Abdirashid, M. Guglielmi, “Structure and properties of sol-gel coatings from methyltriethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 2(4), 3–7 (1994).
  21. Optonex Ltd, Helsinki, Finland.
  22. W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited