OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 17 — Jun. 10, 1998
  • pp: 3705–3716

Optical solution to the Lee algorithm by use of symbolic substitution

Linda E. M. Brackenbury  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 17, pp. 3705-3716 (1998)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (316 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The Lee algorithm is a well-known technique for finding interconnection routes in applications such as on printed circuit boards. It is a problem highly suited to the use of the parallelism of optics. An optical solution to routing that is based on multirule symbolic substitution is described. As well as single-destination routing on a single layer, the adaptation of the technique for dealing with multiple destinations and multilayer boards is described. Finally, the performance gain of an optical over an electronic implementation of the algorithm is estimated.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(200.0200) Optics in computing : Optics in computing
(200.3050) Optics in computing : Information processing

Linda E. M. Brackenbury, "Optical Solution to the Lee Algorithm by Use of Symbolic Substitution," Appl. Opt. 37, 3705-3716 (1998)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Huang, “Parallel algorithms for optical digital computers,” in Tenth International Optical Computing Conference, S. Horvitz, ed., Proc. SPIE 422, 13–17 (1983). [CrossRef]
  2. A. L. Lentine and D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology—bistable logic gates to optoelectronic smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993). [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Murdocca, “Digital optical computing with one-rule cellular automata,” Appl. Opt. 26, 682–688 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. H. Brenner, A. Huang, and N. Streibl, “Digital optical computing with symbolic substitution,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3054–3060 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. D. Goodman and W. T. Rhodes, “Symbolic substitution applications to image processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1708–1714 (1987). [CrossRef]
  6. R. G. A. Craig, B. S. Wherrett, A. C. Walker, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, M. R. Tagizadeh, G. MacKinnon, and S. D. Smith, “First programmable digital optical processor: optical cellular logic image processor,” in Optics for Computers: Architectures and Technologies, G. J. Lebreton, ed., Proc. SPIE 1505, 76–86 (1991). [CrossRef]
  7. K. S. Huang, C. B. Kuznia, B. K. Jenkins, and A. A. Sawchuk, “Parallel architectures for digital optical cellular image processing,” IEEE Proc. 82, 1711–1723 (1994). [CrossRef]
  8. C. Y. Lee, “An algorithm for path connections and its applications,” I. R. E. Trans. Electron. Comput. EC10, 346–365 (1961). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Fukui and K. Kitayama, “Applications of image-logic algebra—wire routing and numerical data processing,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4645–4656 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. R. Gillies, J. F. Snowdon, and B. S. Wherrett, “Simulation and benchmarking of a new algorithm for the optical cellular logic image processor,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 21–24 (1995).
  11. P. Endecott, “An investigation of symbolic substitution,” Third Year Undergraduate Project Rep. (Department of Computer Science, Manchester University, Manchester, UK, 1991).
  12. T. D. Spiers and D. A. Edwards, “A high-performance routing engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-fourth ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1987), pp. 793–799.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited