OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 37, Iss. 19 — Jul. 1, 1998
  • pp: 4069–4079

Analysis and Optimization of Fabrication of Continuous-Relief Diffractive Optical Elements

Thomas Hessler, Markus Rossi, Rino E. Kunz, and Michael T. Gale  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 19, pp. 4069-4079 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.37.004069


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1162 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The fabrication of continuous-relief diffractive optical elements by direct laser beam writing in photoresist is analyzed. The main limitation and tolerances are identified, and their influence on optical performance is quantified. Fabricated structures show rounded profile steps resulting from the convolution of the desired profile with the writing beam. This leads to a reduction in diffraction efficiency. Optimization techniques are presented to minimize this effect. Scaling the profile depth by a factor of μ > 1 increases the first-order diffraction efficiency for blazed elements. This method is also applied to suppress the zeroth diffraction order in computer-generated holograms. A nonlinear compensation of the exposure data for the Gaussian beam convolution results in an 18% increase of the diffraction efficiency for a blazed grating with a 10-μm period to a value of 79%.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(090.1760) Holography : Computer holography
(230.4000) Optical devices : Microstructure fabrication

Citation
Thomas Hessler, Markus Rossi, Rino E. Kunz, and Michael T. Gale, "Analysis and Optimization of Fabrication of Continuous-Relief Diffractive Optical Elements," Appl. Opt. 37, 4069-4079 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-37-19-4069


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. M. T. Gale, “Direct writing of continuous-relief elements,” in Micro-Optics—Elements, Systems, and Applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).
  2. C. G. Blough, M. Rossi, S. K. Mack, and R. L. Michaels, “Single-point diamond turning and replication of visible and near-infrared diffractive optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4648–4654 (1997).
  3. M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, M. Larsson, and S. Hard, “Proximity-compensated blazed transmission grating manufacture with direct-writing, electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 33, 103–107 (1994).
  4. F. Nikolajeff, J. Bengtson, M. Larrson, M. Ekberg, and S. Hård, “Measuring and modeling the proximity effect in direct-write electron-beam lithography kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 34, 897–903 (1994).
  5. V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korol’kov, A. G. Poleshchuk, V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, and A. A. Kharissov, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements by direct laser-writing with circular scanning,” in Digital Image Processing and Computer Graphics, N. A. Kuznetsov and V. A. Soifer, eds., Proc. SPIE 2363, 290–297 (1995).
  6. M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schütz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
  7. Th. Hessler, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, M. T. Gale, M. Wegner, D. Steudle, and H. J. Tiziani, “Microlens arrays with spatial variation of the optical functions,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. A 6(6), 673–681 (1997).
  8. M. Rossi, Th. Hessler, and M. T. Gale, “Design and fabrication of micro-optical elements with deep relief structures,” in Vol. 12 of EOS Topical Meeting Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1997), pp. 68–69.
  9. M. T. Gale and K. Knop, “The fabrication of fine lens arrays by laser beam writing,” in Industrial Applications of Laser Technology, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. SPIE 398, 347–353 (1983).
  10. M. Rossi, R. E. Kunz, and H. P. Herzig, “Refractive and diffractive properties of planar micro-optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5996–6007 (1995).
  11. Th. Hessler and R. E. Kunz, “Relaxed fabrication tolerances for low Fresnel number lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1599–1606 (1997).
  12. D. W. Ricks, “Scattering from diffractive optics,” in Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics, S. H. Lee, ed., Crit. Rev. SPIE CR49, 187–211 (1993).
  13. M. B. Fleming and M. C. Hutley, “Blazed diffractive optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4635–4643 (1997).
  14. T. J. Suleski and D. C. O’Shea, “Gray-scale masks for diffractive-optics fabrication: I. Commercial slide imagers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7507–7517 (1995).
  15. D. C. O’Shea and W. S. Rockward, “Gray-scale masks for diffractive-optics fabrication: II. Spatially filtered halftone screens,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7518–7526 (1995).
  16. H. P. Herzig, “Design of refractive and diffractive micro-optics,” in Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems, and Applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).
  17. R. E. Kunz and M. Rossi, “Phase-matched Fresnel elements,” Opt. Commun. 97, 6–9 (1993).
  18. Th. Hessler, “Continuous-relief diffractive optical elements: design, fabrication and applications,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1998).
  19. E. Noponen, J. Turunen, and A. Vasara, “Electromagnetic theory and design of diffractive lens arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 434–443 (1993).
  20. G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: Theoretical limitations on the diffraction efficiency of multilevel diffractive optical elements,” Tech. Rep. 914 (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Cambridge, Mass., 1991).
  21. M. Rossi, C. G. Blough, D. H. Raguin, E. K. Popov, and D. Maystre, “Diffraction efficiency of high-NA continuous-relief diffractive lenses,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 233–236.
  22. J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms and Optics (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 10.2.
  23. The CSEM laser-beam-writing system was developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute Zurich, which was merged with CSEM in July 1997.
  24. M. T. Gale, “Replication,” in Micro-Optics—Elements, Systems, and Applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).
  25. M. Kuittinen, H. P. Herzig, and P. Ehbets, “Improvements in diffraction efficiency of gratings and microlenses with continuous relief structures,” Opt. Commun. 120, 230–234 (1995).
  26. T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, “Blazed gratings and Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 7, 578–580 (1982).
  27. E. Carcolé, J. Campos, I. Juvells, and S. Bosch, “Diffraction efficiency of low-resolution Fresnel encoded lenses,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6741–6746 (1994).
  28. Matlab Optimization Toolbox 1.5, The MathWorks Inc., Natick, Mass. (1996).
  29. D. A. Buralli and G. M. Morris, “Effects of diffraction efficiency on the modulation transfer function of diffractive lenses,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4389–4396 (1992).
  30. P. Ehbets, M. Rossi, and H. P. Herzig, “Continuous-relief fan out elements with optimized fabrication tolerances,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3456–3464 (1995).
  31. F. Nikolajeff, S. Hård, and B. Curtis, “Diffractive microlenses replicated in fused silica for excimer laser-beam homogenizing,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8481–8489 (1997).
  32. J. Bengtsson, “Direct inclusion of the proximity effect in the calculation of kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4993–4996 (1994).
  33. M. Larsson, M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, and S. Hård, “Successive development optimization of resist kinoforms manufactured with direct-writing, electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1176–1179 (1994).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited