OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 21 — Jul. 20, 1998
  • pp: 4937–4943

One-dimensional, time-resolved Raman measurements in a sooting flame made with 355-nm excitation

Friedrich Rabenstein and Alfred Leipertz  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 21, pp. 4937-4943 (1998)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (367 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Single-shot vibrational Raman measurements were performed along an 11-mm-long line crossing the reaction zone in a premixed, fuel-rich (ϕ = 10), laminar methane–air flame by use of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser with a 355-nm emission wavelength. This laser source seems to have advantages relative to KrF excimer lasers as well as to Nd:YAG lasers at 532 nm for hydrocarbon combustion diagnostics. The Raman emissions of all major species (N2, O2, CH4, H2, CO2, H2O) were detected simultaneously with a spatial resolution of 0.4 mm. By integration over selected spectral intervals, the mole fractions of all species and subsequently the local gas temperatures have been obtained. A comparison of the temperatures that were found with results from filtered Rayleigh experiments showed good agreement, indicating the success of what are to the best of our knowledge the first one-dimensional single-shot Raman measurements in a sooting hydrocarbon flame.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.6780) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Temperature
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors
(280.1740) Remote sensing and sensors : Combustion diagnostics
(280.2470) Remote sensing and sensors : Flames
(300.6450) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, Raman

Original Manuscript: April 15, 1997
Revised Manuscript: February 5, 1998
Published: July 20, 1998

Friedrich Rabenstein and Alfred Leipertz, "One-dimensional, time-resolved Raman measurements in a sooting flame made with 355-nm excitation," Appl. Opt. 37, 4937-4943 (1998)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).
  2. J. Haumann, A. Leipertz, “Giant-pulsed laser Raman oxygen measurements in a premixed laminar methane–air flame,” Appl. Opt. 24, 4509–4515 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Meier, A. O. Vyrodov, V. Bergmann, W. Stricker, “Simultaneous Raman/LIF measurements of major species and NO in turbulent H2/air diffusion flames,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 79–90 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Single-pulse, simultaneous multipoint multispecies Raman measurements in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames,” Opt. Lett. 19, 414–416 (1994). [PubMed]
  5. J. A. Wehrmeyer, S. Yeralan, K. S. Tecu, “Multispecies Raman imaging in flames by use of an unintensified charge-coupled device,” Opt. Lett. 20, 934–936 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Quantitative one-dimensional single-pulse multi-species concentration and temperature measurement in the lift-off region of a turbulent H2/air diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 533–545 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. M. B. Long, D. C. Fourgouette, M. C. Escoda, “Instantaneous ramanography of a turbulent diffusion flame,” Opt. Lett. 8, 244–246 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Rabenstein, A. Leipertz, “Two-dimensional temperature determination in the exhaust region of a laminar flat flame burner with linear Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6989–6996 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. R. W. Pitz, J. A. Wehrmeyer, J. M. Bowling, T.-S. Cheng, “Single pulse vibrational Raman scattering by a broadband KrF excimer laser in a hydrogen–air flame,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2325–2332 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Fluorescence interference with Raman measurements in nonpremixed flames of methane,” Combust. Flame 68, 109–119 (1987). [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. Wehrmeyer, T.-S. Cheng, R. W. Pitz, “Raman scattering measurements in flames using a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1495–1505 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Kobayashi, M. Konishi, M. Ohtaka, S. Taki, M. Ueda, K. Kagawa, H. Inaba, “Application of UV and VUV excimer lasers in combustion measurements using enhanced Raman scattering,” in Laser Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion, K. Iinuma, T. Asanuma, T. Ohsawa, J. Doi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), pp. 133–140. [CrossRef]
  13. F. Lipp, E. P. Hassel, J. Janicka, “Comparison of UV Raman spectroscopy with 248 nm and 308 nm for determination of flame temperature and concentrations,” in Proceedings of the Anglo-German Combustion Symposium 1993 (British Section of the Combustion Institute, Cambridge, 1993), pp. 255–258.
  14. E. P. Hassel, “Ultraviolet Raman-scattering measurements in flames by the use of a narrow-band XeCl excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4058–4065 (1993). [PubMed]
  15. J. A. Shirley, “UV Raman spectroscopy of H2–air flames excited with a narrowband KrF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 45–48 (1990). [CrossRef]
  16. M. S. Mansour, Y.-C. Chen, “Line Raman, Rayleigh, and laser-induced predissociation fluorescence technique for combustion with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4252–4260 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. L. Vander Wal, K. J. Weiland, “Laser-induced incandescence: development and characterization towards a measurement of soot volume fraction,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 445–452 (1994). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Will, S. Schraml, A. Leipertz, “Two-dimensional soot-particle sizing by time-resolved laser induced incandescence,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2342–2344 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. W. Dibble, A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, “The spontaneous Raman scattering technique applied to nonpremixed flames of methane,” Combust. Flame 67, 189–206 (1987). [CrossRef]
  20. A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Combustion diagnostics by laser Raman and fluorescence techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253–322 (1979). [CrossRef]
  21. S. P. Nandula, R. W. Pitz, R. S. Barlow, G. J. Fiechtner, “Rayleigh/Raman/LIF measurements in a turbulent lean premixed combustor,” paper AIAA-96-0937, presented at the 34th Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, 15–18 January 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).
  22. G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, J. H. Grinstead, “Multiphoton ionization of N2 by the third harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser: a new avenue for air diagnostics,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1037–1039 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. Leipertz, J. Haumann, M. Fiebig, “Contact-free measurements of oxygen concentration in industrial flames by Raman scattering,” Chem. Eng. Technol. 10, 190–203 (1987). [CrossRef]
  24. D. Hofmann, K.-U. Münch, A. Leipertz, “Two-dimensional temperature determination in sooting flames by filtered Rayleigh scattering,” Opt. Lett. 21, 525–527 (1996). [CrossRef]
  25. D. Hofmann, A. Leipertz, “Temperature field measurements in a sooting flame by filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS),” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 945–950. [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited