OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 23 — Aug. 10, 1998
  • pp: 5394–5398

Pattern generation with an extended focal depth

Rafael Piestun, Boris Spektor, and Joseph Shamir  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 23, pp. 5394-5398 (1998)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (255 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The depth of focus of light patterns can be extended, within given tolerances, beyond the classical limits. For a quantitative evaluation we introduce a degree of depth-of-focus extension and a three-dimensional energy-distribution efficiency. The basic limitations involved in depth-of-focus extension are discussed. A coherent system in which the input is optimized for a desired output pattern is presented. An example of a pattern containing diffraction-limited line segments and a 4 times improvement in depth of focus is demonstrated. This task is much more difficult than generating patterns of isolated light spots in which the depth of focus is extended beyond an order of magnitude.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(100.5090) Image processing : Phase-only filters
(140.3300) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam shaping

Original Manuscript: March 11, 1998
Revised Manuscript: April 20, 1998
Published: August 10, 1998

Rafael Piestun, Boris Spektor, and Joseph Shamir, "Pattern generation with an extended focal depth," Appl. Opt. 37, 5394-5398 (1998)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).
  2. M. D. Levenson, N. S. Viswanathan, R. A. Simpson, “Improving resolution in photolithography with a phase-shifting mask,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-29, 1828–1836 (1982). [CrossRef]
  3. H. Fukuda, T. Terasawa, S. Okazaki, “Spatial filtering for depth of focus and resolution enhancement,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3113–3116 (1991). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Inoue, T. Fujisawa, S. Tamaushi, Y. Ogawa, “Optimization of partially coherent optical system for optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3004–3007 (1992). [CrossRef]
  5. R. Piestun, J. Shamir, “Control of wave-front propagation with diffractive elements,” Opt. Lett. 19, 771–773 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Salik, J. Rosen, A. Yariv, “Nondiffracting images under coherent illumination,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1743–1745 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl, “Speckle-free reconstruction in digital holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 693–697 (1985).
  8. See, for example, R. Piestun, B. Spektor, J. Shamir, “Wave fields in three dimensions: analysis and synthesis,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1837–1848 (1996), and references therein.
  9. M. A. Golub, S. V. Karpeev, A. M. Prokhorov, I. N. Sisakyan, V. A. Soifer, “Focusing light into a specified volume by computer synthesized hologram,” Sov. Technol. Phys. Lett. 7, 264–266 (1981).
  10. V. P. Koronkevitch, I. G. Palchikova, “Kinoforms with increased depth of focus,” Optik (Stuttgart) 87, 91–93 (1991).
  11. E. Marom, N. Konforti, D. Mendelovic, J. Katz, “Extended confinement beam generation,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth Congress of the International Commission on Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippenyi, G. Lupkovics, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 526–527 (1993).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited