OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 37, Iss. 24 — Aug. 20, 1998
  • pp: 5771–5776

High-sensitivity mid-infrared heterodyne spectrometer with a tunable diode laser as a local oscillator

Frank Schmülling, Bärbel Klumb, Markus Harter, Rudolf Schieder, Bernd Vowinkel, and Gisbert Winnewisser  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 24, pp. 5771-5776 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.37.005771


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (194 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A new mid-IR heterodyne spectrometer, which is intended to be applied for atmospheric and astrophysical studies, is presented. The spectrometer uses a frequency-stabilized tunable diode laser as a local oscillator. Owing to the low output power of available single-mode diode lasers, a newly developed confocal-ring resonator, the diplexer, is used to superimpose the source signal efficiently with that of the local oscillator. Additionally, the diplexer serves as an optical filter that establishes controlled optical feedback between the laser diode and the detector, which allows stable laser operation with linewidths of the order of 1 MHz. The heterodyne signal from the HgCdTe detector is analyzed by means of a 1.4-GHz acousto-optical spectrometer. With this setup we find system temperatures as low as 4400 K (double sideband), that is, approximately a factor of 6 of the quantum limit.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(300.0300) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy
(300.6260) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, diode lasers
(300.6310) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, heterodyne
(300.6320) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, high-resolution
(300.6340) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, infrared

History
Original Manuscript: October 16, 1997
Revised Manuscript: April 23, 1998
Published: August 20, 1998

Citation
Frank Schmülling, Bärbel Klumb, Markus Harter, Rudolf Schieder, Bernd Vowinkel, and Gisbert Winnewisser, "High-sensitivity mid-infrared heterodyne spectrometer with a tunable diode laser as a local oscillator," Appl. Opt. 37, 5771-5776 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-37-24-5771


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M. M. Abbas, M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Buhl, “Sensitivity limits of an infrared heterodyne spectrometer for astrophysical applications,” Appl. Opt. 15, 427–436 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Kostiuk, M. J. Mumma, J. J. Hillman, D. Buhl, L. W. Brown, J. L. Faris, D. L. Spears, “NH3 spectral line measurements on earth and jupiter using a 10 μm superheterodyne receiver,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 17, 431–439 (1977). [CrossRef]
  3. D. Glenar, T. Kostiuk, D. E. Jennings, D. Buhl, M. J. Mumma, “Tunable diode-laser heterodyne spectrometer for remote observations near 8 μm,” Appl. Opt. 21, 253–259 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Kostiuk, M. J. Mumma, “Remote sensing by IR heterodyne spectroscopy” Appl. Opt. 22, 2644–2654 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Rothermel, H. U. Käufl, Y. Yu, “A heterodyne spectrometer for astronomical measurements at 10 micrometers,” Astron. Astrophys. 126, 387–392 (1983).
  6. H. Fukunishi, S. Okano, M. Taguchi, T. Ohnuma, “Laser heterodyne spectrometer using a liquid nitrogen cooled tunable diode laser for remote measurements of atmospheric O3 and N2O,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2722–2728 (1990). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Delahaigue, D. Courtois, C. Thiébeaux, S. Kalité, B. Parvitte, “Atmospheric laser heterodyne detection,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 7–12 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. R. Schieder, “High resolution diode laser and heterodyne spectroscopy with applications toward remote sensing,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 35, 477–486 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. C. T. McElroy, A. Glodman, P. F. Fogal, D. G. Murcray, “Heterodyne spectrophotometry of ozone in the 9.6 μm band using a tunable diode laser,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5567–5575 (1990). [CrossRef]
  10. B. Vowinkel, P. Müller, “Cryogenic L-band HEMT-amplifier with a noise figure of less than 0.1 dB.,” in MIOP Conference Proceedings, (Network GmbH, Hagenburg, Germany, 1990), pp. 653–658.
  11. N. Anselm, K. M. T. Yamada, R. Schieder, G. Winnewisser, “Measurements of foreign gas pressure shift and broadening effects in the (1-0) band of CO with N2 and argon,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 161, 284–296 (1993). [CrossRef]
  12. M. Mürtz, M. Schaefer, M. Schneider, J. S. Wells, W. Urban, U. Schiessl, M. Tacke, “Stabilization of 3.3 and 5.1 μm lead-salt diode lasers by optical feedback,” Opt. Commun. 94, 551–556 (1992). [CrossRef]
  13. C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, “Instability of semiconductor lasers due to optical feedback from distant reflectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 294–301 (1986). [CrossRef]
  14. G. P. Agrawal, “Line narrowing in a single-mode injection laser due to external optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 468–471 (1984). [CrossRef]
  15. C. N. Harward, J. M. Hoell, “Optical feedback effects on the performance of Pb1-xSnxSe semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3978–3983 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Schieder, V. Tolls, G. Winnewisser, “The cologne acousto optical spectrometer,” Exp. Astron. 1, 101–121 (1989). [CrossRef]
  17. V. Tolls, R. Schieder, G. Winnewisser, “New cologne acousto optical spectrometer projects,” in Proceedings of the 29th Liège International Astrophysical Colloquium: From Ground-Based to Space-Borne Sub-mm Astronomy (1990), pp. 299–305.
  18. A. R. Kerr, M. J. Feldman, S. K. Pan, “Receiver noise temperature, the quantum noise limit, and the role of the zero-point fluctuations,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (1997), pp. 101–111. Originally printed as Electronics Division Internal Report No. 304 (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Va. 22903, 1996).
  19. J. D. Kraus, Radio Astronomy,2nd ed. (Cygnus-Quasar, Powell, Ohio, 1986).
  20. K. Rohfls, T. L. Wilson, Tools of Radio Astronomy (Springer, New York, 1996).
  21. O. Hachenberg, B. Vowinkel, Technische Grundlagen der Radioastronomie (BI Wissenschaftsverlag, Bibliographisches Institut, Manheim, Germany, 1982).
  22. T. G. Blaney, “Signal-to-noise ratio and other characteristics of heterodyne radiation receivers,” Space Sci. Rev. 17, 691–702 (1975). [CrossRef]
  23. A. I. Harris, “Coherent and incoherent detection at submillimeter and far-infrared wavelengths,” in Coherent Detection at Millimeter Wavelengths and their Applications,P. Encrenaz, C. Laurent, S. Gulkis, E. Kollberg, G. Winnewisser, eds., Les Houches Series (Nova Science, New York, 1991), pp. 7–34.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited