OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 26 — Sep. 10, 1998
  • pp: 6247–6255

Optical security system with Fourier plane encoding

Bahram Javidi and Esmail Ahouzi  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 26, pp. 6247-6255 (1998)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (705 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We propose a new technique for security verification of personal documents and other forms of personal identifications such as ID cards, passports, or credit cards. In this technique a primary pattern that might be a phase-encoded image is convolved by a random code. The information is phase encoded on the personal document. Therefore the information cannot be reproduced by an intensity detector such as a CCD camera. An optical processor based on the nonlinear joint transform correlator is used to perform the verification and the validation of documents with this technique. By verification of the biometrics information and the random code simultaneously, the proposed optical system determines whether a card is authentic or is being used by an authorized person. We tested the performance of the optical system for security and validation in the presence of input noise and in the presence of distortion of the information on the card. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by use of a number of metrics. Statistical analysis of the system is performed to investigate the noise tolerance and the discrimination against false inputs for security verification.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(070.2590) Fourier optics and signal processing : ABCD transforms
(100.1830) Image processing : Deconvolution
(100.4550) Image processing : Correlators
(100.5010) Image processing : Pattern recognition
(100.5070) Image processing : Phase retrieval

Original Manuscript: May 6, 1998
Revised Manuscript: May 18, 1998
Published: September 10, 1998

Bahram Javidi and Esmail Ahouzi, "Optical security system with Fourier plane encoding," Appl. Opt. 37, 6247-6255 (1998)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. B. Javidi, J. L. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1752–1756 (1994). [CrossRef]
  2. H.-Y. Li, Y. Qiao, D. Psaltis, “Optical network for real-time face recognition,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5026–5035 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Grycewicz, B. Javidi, “Experimental comparison of binary joint transform correlators used for fingerprint identification,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2519–2525 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. P. K. H. Fielding, J. L. Horner, C. K. Makekau, “Optical fingerprint identification by binary joint transform correlation,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1958–1961 (1991). [CrossRef]
  5. C. L. Wilson, C. I. Watson, E. G. Paek, “Combined optical and neural network fingerprint matching,” in Optical Pattern Recognition VIII, D. P. Casasent, T.-H. Chao, eds., Proc. SPIE3073, 373–383 (1997). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Rodolfo, H. Rajbenbach, J.-P. Huignard, “Performance of a photorefractive joint transform correlator for fingerprint identification,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1166–1171 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. Ph. Réfrégier, B. Javidi, “Optical image encryption using input and Fourier plane random phase encoding,” Opt. Lett. 20, 767–769 (1995). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Kowalczyk, “Spectral and imaging properties of uniform diffusers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 192–200 (1984). [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kogelnik, K. S. Pennington, “Holographic imaging through a random medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 273–274 (1968). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Maze, Ph. Réfrégier, “Optical correlation: influence of the coding of the input image,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6788–6796 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Maze, Ph. Réfrégier, “Noise robustness of optical correlation for amplitude or phase modulation of the input image,” Opt. Lett. 17, 426–428 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. J. Weaver, J. W. Goodman, “A technique for optically convolving two functions,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1248–1249 (1966). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Javidi, “Nonlinear joint transform correlators,” in Real-Time Optical Information Processing, B. Javidi, J. L. Horner, eds. (Academic, New York, 1994), pp. 115–183.
  14. B. Javidi, “Nonlinear joint power spectrum-based optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2358–2367 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited