OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 28 — Oct. 1, 1998
  • pp: 6627–6635

Confocal, two-photon laser-induced fluorescence technique for the detection of nitric oxide

Mark Reeves, Mark Musculus, and Patrick Farrell  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 28, pp. 6627-6635 (1998)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (131 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We describe a confocal two-photon laser-induced fluorescence scheme for the detection of gaseous NO. Excitation from a simple YAG-pumped Coumarin 450 dye system near 452.6 nm was used to promote the two-photon NO(A2+, ν′ = 0 ← X2Π, ν″ = 0) transition in the γ(0, 0) band. Subsequent fluorescence detection in the range 200–300 nm permitted almost total rejection of elastic and geometric scatter of laser radiation for excellent signal/noise ratio characteristics. The goal of the research was to apply NO fluorescence to a relatively realistic limited optical access combustion environment. A confocal optical arrangement was demonstrated for single-point measurements of NO concentration in gas samples and in atmospheric-pressure flames. The technique is suitable for applications that offer only a single direction for optical access and when significant elastic scatter is present.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.1740) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Combustion diagnostics
(300.2530) Spectroscopy : Fluorescence, laser-induced
(300.6410) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, multiphoton

Original Manuscript: November 3, 1997
Revised Manuscript: March 19, 1998
Published: October 1, 1998

Mark Reeves, Mark Musculus, and Patrick Farrell, "Confocal, two-photon laser-induced fluorescence technique for the detection of nitric oxide," Appl. Opt. 37, 6627-6635 (1998)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Kent, UK, 1998), pp. 301–342.
  2. J. D. Bradshaw, M. O. Rodgers, D. D. Davis, “Single photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO and SO2 for atmospheric conditions of composition and pressure,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2493–2500 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. P. Lee, B. K. McMillin, R. K. Hanson, “Temperature measurements in gases by use of planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5379–5396 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. H. Paul, M. P. Lee, R. K. Hanson, “Molecular velocity imaging of supersonic flows using pulsed planar laser-induced fluorescence of NO,” Opt. Lett. 14, 417–419 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. J. Cattolica, J. A. Cavolowski, T. G. Mataga, “Laser-fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in low-pressure H2/O2/NO flames,” in Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 1165–1173.
  6. C. D. Carter, R. S. Barlow, “Simultaneous measurements of NO, OH, and the major species in turbulent flames,” Opt. Lett. 19, 299–301 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. U. Westblom, M. Alden, “Simultaneous multiple species detection in a flame using laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2592–2599 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. E. Heard, J. B. Jeffries, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, “LIF measurements in methane/air flames of radicals important in prompt-NO formation,” Combust. Flame 88, 137–148 (1992). [CrossRef]
  9. M. C. Drake, “High pressure nitric oxide formation: kinetics modeling and laser experiments,” presented at the Combustion Institute Joint Technical Meeting, Central and Eastern Sections, New Orleans, La., 15–17 March 1993.
  10. J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, M. C. Drake, “Laser-saturated fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in laminar, flat, C2H6/O2/N2 flames at atmospheric pressure,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 91, 271–295 (1993). [CrossRef]
  11. J. R. Reisel, N. M. Laurendeau, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements and modeling of nitric oxide formation in high pressure flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 98, 137–160 (1994). [CrossRef]
  12. B. Alatas, J. A. Pinson, T. A. Litzinger, D. A. Santavicca, “A study of NO and soot evolution in a DI diesel engine via planar imaging,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 1–5 March 1993.
  13. H. Nakagawa, H. Endo, Y. Deguchi, M. Noda, H. Oikawa, T. Shimada, “NO measurement in diesel spray flame using laser induced fluorescence,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.
  14. P. Andresen, G. Meijer, H. Schluter, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Fluorescence imaging inside an internal combustion engine using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2392–2404 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, P. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schafer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques,” in Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612. [CrossRef]
  16. Th. M. Brugman, R. Klein-Douwel, G. Huigen, E. van Walwijk, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in an n-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 405–410 (1993). [CrossRef]
  17. T. Tatsuya, M. Fujimoto, M. Tabata, “Planar measurements of NO in an s.i. engine based on laser induced fluorescence,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.
  18. M. Knapp, A. Luckzak, H. Schluter, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Crank-angle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in a spark-ignition engine at 248 nm and correlations to flame front propagation and pressure release,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4009–4017 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Knapp, A. Luckzak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., 24–27 February 1997.
  20. E. W. Rothe, P. Andresen, “Application of tunable excimer lasers to combustion diagnostics: a review,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3971–4033 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. L. McKenzie, K. P. Gross, “Two-photon excitation of nitric oxide fluorescence as a temperature indicator in unsteady gasdynamic processes,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2153–2165 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Bradshaw, D. D. Davis, “Sequential two-photon-laser-induced fluorescence: a new method for detecting atmospheric trace levels of NO,” Opt. Lett. 7, 224–226 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. G. Bray, R. M. Hochstrasse, J. E. Wessesl, “Continuously tunable two-photon excitation of individual rotational levels of the A2∑+ state of nitric oxide,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 27, 167–171 (1974). [CrossRef]
  24. M. Asscher, Y. Haas, “Two-photon excitation of nitric oxide to levels near and above the dissociation limit,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 59, 231–236 (1978). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Asscher, Y. Haas, “The quenching mechanism of electronically excited Rydberg states of nitric oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2115–2125 (1982). [CrossRef]
  26. K. P. Gross, R. L. McKenzie, “The two-photon absorptivity of rotational transitions in the A2∑+ (v′ = 0) ← X2Π (v″ = 0) gamma band of nitric oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5260–5266 (1982). [CrossRef]
  27. M. Alden, H. Edner, S. Wallin, “Simultaneous spatially resolved NO and NO2 measurements using one- and two-photon laser-induced fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 10, 529–531 (1985). [CrossRef]
  28. H. Ostmark, M. Carlson, K. Ekvall, “Concentration and temperature measurements in a laser-induced high explosive ignition zone. I. LIF spectroscopy measurements,” Combust. Flame 105, 381–390 (1996). [CrossRef]
  29. M. Alden, M. H. Hans, S. Svanberg, S. Wallin, “Imaging laser-induced fluorescence of oxygen atoms in a flame,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3255–3257 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. E. M. Goldsmith, R. J. M. Anderson, “Imaging of atomic hydrogen in flames with two-step saturated fluorescence detection,” Appl. Opt. 24, 607–609 (1995). [CrossRef]
  31. M. Alden, S. Wallin, W. Wendt, “Applications of two-photon absorption for detection of CO in combustion gases,” Appl. Phys. B 33, 205–212 (1984). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited