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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 3 — Jan. 20, 1998
  • pp: 438–442

Design of a four-element, hollow-cube corner retroreflector for satellites by use of a genetic algorithm

Atsushi Minato and Nobuo Sugimoto  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 3, pp. 438-442 (1998)

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A four-element retroreflector was designed for satellite laser ranging and Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption measurement of the atmosphere. The retroreflector consists of four symmetrically located corner retroreflectors. Each retroreflector element has curved mirrors and tuned dihedral angles to correct velocity aberrations. A genetic algorithm was employed to optimize dihedral angles of each element and the directions of the four elements. The optimized four-element retroreflector has high reflectance with a reasonably broad angular coverage. It is also shown that the genetic algorithm is effective for optimizing optics with many parameters.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.0010) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric and oceanic optics
(010.3640) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Lidar
(140.3460) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers
(350.4600) Other areas of optics : Optical engineering

Original Manuscript: February 6, 1997
Revised Manuscript: May 23, 1997
Published: January 20, 1998

Atsushi Minato and Nobuo Sugimoto, "Design of a four-element, hollow-cube corner retroreflector for satellites by use of a genetic algorithm," Appl. Opt. 37, 438-442 (1998)

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  1. Advanced Earth Observation Satellite Pamphlet (National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo, 1992).
  2. A. Minato, N. Sugimoto, Y. Sasano, “Optical design of cube corner retroreflectors having curved mirror surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6015–6020 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Sugimoto, “Retroreflector in Space (RIS) experiment,” in Proceedings of the 17th Laser Rader Conference (National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 181–183.
  4. N Sugimoto, A Minato, I Matsui, Y Sasano, T Itabe, T Aoki, M Takabe, N Hiromoto, H Kunimori, “Plan for the experiment with the retroreflector in space (RIS) on ADEOS,” in Advanced and Next-Generation Satellite, H. Fujisada, M. N. Sweeting, eds., SPIE2583, 217–227 (1995).
  5. N. Sugimoto, A. Minato, “Data reduction method for the laser long-path absorption measurement of atmospheric trace species using the retroreflector in space,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E78-B, 1585–1590 (1995).
  6. N. Sugimoto, A. Minato, “Optical characteristics of the Retroreflector in Space for the Earth Observing Satellite,” Opt. Rev. 3, 62–64 (1996). [CrossRef]
  7. J. H. Holland, Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1992).
  8. D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1989).

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