OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 37, Iss. 3 — Jan. 20, 1998
  • pp: 573–585

Design of a phase/Doppler light-scattering system for measurement of small-diameter glass fibers during fiberglass manufacturing

Scott A. Schaub, Amir A. Naqwi, and Foster L. Harding  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 3, pp. 573-585 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.37.000573


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (362 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We present fundamental studies examining the design of a phase/Doppler laser light-scattering system applicable to on-line measurements of small-diameter (<15 μm) fibers during fiberglass manufacturing. We first discuss off-line diameter measurement techniques currently used in the fiberglass industry and outline the limitations and problems associated with these methods. For the phase/Doppler design study we have developed a theoretical computer model for the response of the measurement system to cylindrical fibers, which is based on electromagnetic scattering theory. The model, valid for arbitrary fiber diameters and hardware configurations, generates simulated detector output as a function of time for a finite absorbing, cylindrical fiber oriented perpendicular to the two incident laser beams. Results of experimental measurements are presented, confirming predictions of the theoretical model. Parametric studies have also been conducted using the computer model to identify experimental arrangements that provide linear phase–diameter relationships for small-diameter fibers, within the measurement constraints imposed by the fiberglass production environment. The effect of variations in optical properties of the glass as well as fiber orientation effects are discussed. Through this research we have identified phase/Doppler arrangements that we expect to have future applications in the fiberglass industry for on-line diameter monitoring and process control.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2400) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber properties
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(290.0290) Scattering : Scattering

History
Original Manuscript: February 19, 1997
Revised Manuscript: July 21, 1997
Published: January 20, 1998

Citation
Scott A. Schaub, Amir A. Naqwi, and Foster L. Harding, "Design of a phase/Doppler light-scattering system for measurement of small-diameter glass fibers during fiberglass manufacturing," Appl. Opt. 37, 573-585 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-37-3-573


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. A. Schaub, A. A. Naqwi, “Light scattering based sensor for on-line monitoring of fiber diameter distribution during fiberglass manufacturing,” SBIR Final Report, Report #DOE/ER/82229–1, 6March1997 (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.).
  2. S. V. Sankar, W. D. Bachalo, “Response characteristics of the phase Doppler particle analyzer for sizing particles larger than the light wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1487–1496 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Naqwi, F. Durst, “Analysis of laser light-scattering interferometric devices for in-line diagnostics of moving particles,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4003–4018 (1993). [PubMed]
  4. M. Saffman, P. Buchhave, H. Tanger, “Simultaneous measurement of size, concentration and velocity of spherical particles by a laser Doppler method,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics—II, R. J. Adrian, D. F. Durao, F. Durst, H. Mishina, J. Whitelaw, eds. (LADOAN, Lisbon, 1986).
  5. R. W. Sellens, “Alignment errors in phase Doppler receiver optics,” Part. Part. Syst. Char. 7, 116–120 (1990). [CrossRef]
  6. A. Naqwi, F. Durst, “Contributions to the optical design of the phase/Doppler system,” in Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Optical Particle Sizing (Arizona State U. Press, Tempe, Ariz., 1990), pp. 521–530.
  7. S. V. Sankar, B. J. Weber, D. Y. Damemoto, W. D. Bachalo, “Sizing fine particles with the phase Doppler interferometric technique,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4914–4920 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A Naqwi, L Jenson, “Interferometric cylinder sizing and velocimetry device,” U.S. Patent5,432,605 (11July1995).
  9. A Naqwi, L Jenson, “Interferometric device for determining sizes and properties of cylinder objects based on phase shift measurements,” U.S. Patent5,453,837 (26September1995).
  10. A. Naqwi, M. Ziema, X. Liu, S. Hohmann, F. Durst, “Droplet and particle sizing using the dual cylindrical wave and the planar phase Doppler optical systems combined with a transputer based signal processor,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon, 1992), pp. 15.3.1–15.3.6.
  11. A Naqwi, L. M. Jenson, “Device for interferometric measurements with compensation for tilt and position of measured cylindrical objects,” U.S. Patent5,513,004 (30April1996).
  12. A. Naqwi, T. Mahon, D. Havir, P. Tsai, C. Hassenboehler, L. Wadsworth, “On-line sizing of meltblown and spunbond fibers using adaptive phase/Doppler velocimeter (APV) method,” in Book of Papers, INDA-TEC 95 (Association of Nonwoven Fabrics Industry, Cary, N.C., 1995), pp. 167–184.
  13. H. Mignon, G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, T. H. Xu, C. Tropea, “Measurement of cylindrical particles with phase Doppler anemometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5180–5190 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. A. Schaub, D. R. Alexander, J. P. Barton, “Theoretical analysis of the effects of particle trajectory and particle resonances on the performance of a phase-Doppler particle analyzer,” Appl. Opt. 33, 473–483 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Rayleigh, “On the electromagnetic theory of light,” Philos. Mag. 12, 81–101 (1881).
  16. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).
  17. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).
  18. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  19. D. R. Alexander, J. P. Barton, S. A. Schaub, M. Emanuel, “Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Interaction of CO2 Laser Radiation with Fluid Cylinders and Adjacent Spheres,” in Proceedings of the 1987 CRDEC Conference on Obscuration and Aerosol Research (U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Md., 1987).
  20. H. Wilhelmsson, “On the reflection of electromagnetic waves from a dielectric cylinder,” Trans. Chalmers University of Technol. 35, 3–16 (1955).
  21. E. Zimmermann, R. Dändliker, N. Souli, B. Dratinger, “Scattering of an off-axis Gaussian beam by a dielectric cylinder compared with a rigorous electromagnetic approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 398–403 (1995). [CrossRef]
  22. G. Gouesbet, G. Gréhan, “Interaction between shaped beams and an infinite cylinder, including a discussion of Gaussian beams,” Part. Part. Syst. Char. 11, 299–308 (1994). [CrossRef]
  23. G. Gouesbet, G. Gréhan, “On the interaction between a Gaussian beam and an infinite cylinder, using non sigma-separable potentials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3261–3273 (1994). [CrossRef]
  24. G. Gouesbet, “Interaction between Gaussian beams and infinite cylinders, by using the theory of distributions,” Part. Part. Syst. Char. 26, 225–239 (1995).
  25. J. A. Lock, “Scattering of a diagonally incident focused Gaussian beam by an infinitely long homogeneous circular cylinder,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 640–652 (1997). [CrossRef]
  26. J. A. Lock, “Morphology-dependent resonances of an infinitely long circular cylinder illuminated by a diagonally incident plane wave or focused Gaussian beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 653–661 (1997). [CrossRef]
  27. G. Gouesbet, “Interaction between an infinite cylinder and an arbitrary-shaped beam,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4292–4304 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. W. D. Ross, “Computation of Bessel functions in light scattering,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1919–1923 (1979). [CrossRef]
  29. R. T. Wang, H. C. van de Hulst, “Application of the exact solution for scattering by an infinite cylinder to the estimation of scattering by a finite cylinder,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2811–2821 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. Abramowitz, I. A. Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1972).
  31. C. F. Du Toit, “The numerical computation of Bessel functions of the first and second kind for integer orders and complex arguments,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation 38, 1341–1349 (1990). [CrossRef]
  32. R. W. B. Ardill, K. J. M. Moriarty, “Accurate Bessel functions Jn(z), Yn(z), Hn(1)(z) and Hn(2)(z) of integer order and complex argument,” Computer Phys. Comm. 17, 321–336 (1979). [CrossRef]
  33. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd Ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992).
  34. J. M. Corpus, P. K. Gupta, “Diameter dependence of the refractive index of melt-drawn glass fibers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 1390–1392 (1993). [CrossRef]
  35. W. A. Weyl, E Chostner-Marboe, The Constitution of Glasses (Interscience, New York, 1962), pp. 1351, 1517.
  36. A. Naqwi, R. Menon, L. M. Fingerson, “An adaptive phase/doppler system and its applications including particle sizing in submicron and nanometer ranges,” Exp. Fluids 20, 328–334 (1996). [CrossRef]
  37. J Evenstad, A Naqwi, R Menon, “A device for phase shift measurement in an advanced phase Doppler velocimeter,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon, 1996), paper 2.1.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited