An analytic expression is derived for the long-term temporal broadening (fluctuations of arrival time) of a collimated space-time Gaussian pulse propagating along a horizontal path through weak optical turbulence. General results are presented for nominal parameter values characterizing laser communication through the atmosphere. Specific examples are calculated for both upper-atmosphere and ground-level cross links. It is shown that, for upper-atmosphere cross links, pulses shorter than 100 fs have considerable broadening, whereas at ground level, broadening is predicted in pulses as long as 1 ps.
© 1998 Optical Society of America
(010.7060) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Turbulence
(140.3300) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam shaping
(320.5550) Ultrafast optics : Pulses
(350.6090) Other areas of optics : Space optics
Cynthia Y. Young, Larry C. Andrews, and Akira Ishimaru, "Time-of-Arrival Fluctuations of a Space–Time Gaussian Pulse in Weak Optical Turbulence: an Analytic Solution," Appl. Opt. 37, 7655-7660 (1998)