The practical use of a grazing x-ray telescope is demonstrated for hard-x-ray imaging as hard as 40 keV by means of a depth-graded <i>d</i>-spacing multilayer, a so-called supermirror. Platinum–carbon multilayers of 26 layer pairs in three blocks with a different periodic length <i>d</i> of 3–5 nm were designed to enhance the reflectivity in the energy range from 24 to 36 keV at a grazing angle of 0.3 deg. The multilayers were deposited on thin-replica-foil mirrors by a magnetron dc sputtering system. The reflectivity was measured to be 25%–30% in this energy range; 20 mirror shells thus deposited were assembled into the tightly nested grazing-incidence telescope. The focused hard-x-ray image was observed with a newly developed position-sensitive CdZnTe solid-state detector. The angular resolution of this telescope was found to be 2.4 arc min in the half-power diameter.
© 1998 Optical Society of America
(110.6770) Imaging systems : Telescopes
(230.4170) Optical devices : Multilayers
(340.7440) X-ray optics : X-ray imaging
(340.7470) X-ray optics : X-ray mirrors
(350.1260) Other areas of optics : Astronomical optics
Koujun Yamashita, Peter J. Serlemitsos, Jack Tueller, Scott D. Barthelmy, Lyle M. Bartlett, Kai-Wing Chan, Akihiro Furuzawa, Neil Gehrels, Kazutoshi Haga, Hideyo Kunieda, Peter Kurczynski, Gyanendra Lodha, Norio Nakajo, Norihiko Nakamura, Yoshiharu Namba, Yasushi Ogasaka, Takashi Okajima, David Palmer, Ann Parsons, Yang Soong, Carl M. Stahl, Harumi Takata, Keisuke Tamura, Yuzuru Tawara, and Bonnard J. Teegarden, "Supermirror Hard-X-Ray Telescope," Appl. Opt. 37, 8067-8073 (1998)