OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 36 — Dec. 20, 1998
  • pp: 8327–8335

Frequency-agile bandpass filter for direct detection lidar receivers

Christopher M. Gittins, William G. Lawrence, and William J. Marinelli  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 36, pp. 8327-8335 (1998)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (241 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We discuss the development of a frequency-agile receiver for CO2 laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems. The receiver is based on the insertion of a low-order tunable etalon into the detector field of view. The incorporation of the etalon into the receiver reduces system noise by decreasing the instantaneous spectral bandwidth of the IR detector to a narrow wavelength range centered on the transmitted CO2 laser line, thereby improving the overall D* of the detection system. A consideration of overall lidar system performance results in a projected factor of a 2–7 reduction in detector system noise, depending on the characteristics of the environment being probed. These improvements can play a key role in extending the ability of DIAL systems to monitor chemical releases from long standoff distances.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1280) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric composition
(010.3640) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Lidar
(040.3060) Detectors : Infrared
(120.2230) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Fabry-Perot
(120.4570) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical design of instruments
(280.1910) Remote sensing and sensors : DIAL, differential absorption lidar

Original Manuscript: March 30, 1998
Revised Manuscript: August 28, 1998
Published: December 20, 1998

Christopher M. Gittins, William G. Lawrence, and William J. Marinelli, "Frequency-agile bandpass filter for direct detection lidar receivers," Appl. Opt. 37, 8327-8335 (1998)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, W. E. DeFeo, “Experimental comparison of heterodyne and direct detection for pulsed differential absorption CO2 lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 682–689 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. E. Warren, “Optimum detection of multiple vapor materials with frequency-agile lidar,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4180–4193 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. E. Uthe, N. B. Nielsen, R. D. Kaiser, “Airborne lidar and radiometric detection and analysis of chemical plumes,” in Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Stand-Off Detection for Chemical and Biological Defense (Science and Technology Corp., Hampton Va., 1994), pp. 211–212.
  4. M. J. Fox, S. Alejandro, J. Gonglewski, M. Stephen, R. Wendt, G. Colby, V. Hasson, M. Kovacs, S. Ghoshroy, E. Uthe, R. Kaiser, S. Czyzak, “The Phillips Laboratory field lidar demonstration (FLD) remote sensing experiments in long range standoff detection of chemical species,” in Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Stand-Off Detection for Chemical and Biological Defense (Science and Technology Corp., Hampton Va., 1994), pp. 201–210.
  5. M. Schmitt, B. McVey, B. Cooke, M. Busch, “Comprehensive system model for CO2 DIAL,” in Gas and Chemical Lasers, R. C. Sze, ed., Proc. SPIE2702, 95–103 (1996). [CrossRef]
  6. E. P. MacKerrow, M. Schmitt, “Measurement of integrated speckle statistics for CO2 lidar returns for a moving, nonuniform, hard target,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6921–6937 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984).
  8. R. C. Harney, “Laser prf considerations in differential absorption lidar applications,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3747–3750 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. D. Rogatto, ed., The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook: Vol. 3, Electro-Optical Components (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1993), pp. 220–227.
  10. G. Hernandez, Fabry Perot Interferometers (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1988).
  11. P. D. Atherton, N. K. Ray, J. Ring, T. R. Ricks, “Tunable Fabry-Perot filters,” Opt. Eng. 20, 806–814 (1981). [CrossRef]
  12. J. T. Knudtson, D. S. Levy, K. C. Herr, “Electronically tunable, first-order Fabry-Perot infrared filter,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2313–2320 (1996). [CrossRef]
  13. S. L. Mielke, R. E. Ryan, T. Hilgeman, L. Lesyna, R. G. Madonna, W. C. Van Nostrand, “Measurements of phase shift on reflection for low-order infrared Fabry–Perot dielectric stack mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8139–8144 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. W. J. Marinelli, K. W. Holtzclaw, G. D. Dippel, D. Blair, D. R. Rossi, “Infrared imaging spectroradiometer,” Final Report for U.S. Air Force contract F30602-94-C-0057, Physical Sciences Inc. Technical Report PSI-1207/TR-1509 (Physical Sciences Inc., Andover, Mass., 1993).
  15. S. Alejandro, “N-Able/ROS,” 1997 MASINT Chemical Defense Science and Technology Review, Kansas City, Mo., 10–12 June 1997.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited