Compound lenses made from low-<i>Z</i> materials (e.g., Be, B, C, and Al) set up as a linear array of refractive lenses are proposed for submicrometer focusing of high-energy x rays (>5 keV) in one or two dimensions. A theory of focusing based on Maxwell’s equation and the Fresnel–Kirchhoff approach is presented. Compound refractive lenses were manufactured by drilling into an Al block a linear array of 200 closely spaced holes 0.5 mm in diameter for linear focusing and two crossed arrays of 100 holes each for point focusing. Focal spots of 3.7 μm and 8 μm × 18 μm were obtained at 30 keV for linear and two-dimensional lenses, respectively. Different technologies of manufacturing and possible applications of the proposed lenses are discussed.
© 1998 Optical Society of America
A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, and B. Lengeler, "Focusing High-Energy X Rays by Compound Refractive Lenses," Appl. Opt. 37, 653-662 (1998)