OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 37, Iss. 4 — Feb. 1, 1998
  • pp: 676–682

Testing refractive silicon microlenses by use of a lateral shearing interferometer in transmission

Lars Erdmann and Richard Kowarschik  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 4, pp. 676-682 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.37.000676


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1880 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Wave aberrations of refractive photoresist microlenses and silicon microlenses were measured with a lateral shearing interferometer. Because of the silicon elements, a near-infrared working wavelength (λ = 1.32 μm) was used. The wave front was evaluated by a phase step technique with four steps. Integration of the phase distributions was performed with a computationally efficient Fourier transformation algorithm. The influence of the detector vidicon nonlinearity on the measured wave front was calculated. The defocusing behavior of the interferometer was investigated by fitting the measured wave fronts with the help of Zernike circle polynomials. It is shown that the reproducibility can be kept below λ/100 rms. Examples for the measured wave fronts of plano–convex silicon microlenses are discussed in detail.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(070.5040) Fourier optics and signal processing : Phase conjugation
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(350.3950) Other areas of optics : Micro-optics

History
Original Manuscript: April 7, 1997
Revised Manuscript: July 17, 1997
Published: February 1, 1998

Citation
Lars Erdmann and Richard Kowarschik, "Testing of refractive silicon microlenses by use of a lateral shearing interferometer in transmission," Appl. Opt. 37, 676-682 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-37-4-676


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. Z. D. Popovic, R. A. Sprague, G. A. N. Connell, “Technique for monolithic fabrication of microlens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1281–1284 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, N. Davies, “The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759–766 (1990). [CrossRef]
  3. G. W. R. Leibbrandt, G. Harbers, P. J. Kunst, “Wave-front analysis with high accuracy by use of a double-grating lateral shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6151–6161 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. L. Erdmann, D. Efferenn, “Technique for monolithic fabrication of silicon microlenses with selectable rim angles,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1094–1098 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Sickinger, O. Falkenstörfer, N. Lindlein, J. Schwider, “Characterization of microlenses using a phase shifting shearing interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2680–2686 (1994). [CrossRef]
  6. K. R. Freischlad, C. L. Koliopoulos, “Modal estimation of a wave front from difference measurements using the discrete Fourier transform,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1852–1861 (1986). [CrossRef]
  7. M. V. R. K. Murty, “Lateral shearing interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 105–148.
  8. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986), pp. 464–466.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited