OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 37, Iss. 4 — Feb. 1, 1998
  • pp: 719–728

Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft-x-ray range

Franz Schäfers, Hans-Christoph Mertins, Frank Schmolla, Ingo Packe, Nikolay N. Salashchenko, and Eugeny A. Shamov  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 4, pp. 719-728 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.37.000719


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (269 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We have systematically investigated ultrathin Cr/Sc multilayers (nanolayers), using tunable soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation. The multilayers were optimized for use either in normal incidence or at 45° at photon energies around the 2p-absorption edges of Sc (399 eV) and Cr (574 eV), respectively. They were sputter deposited on Si wafers or on thin Si3N4-membrane support structures for use in reflection and in transmission, respectively, as polarizing and phase-retarding elements in a polarimeter. The performance theoretically expected with respect to reflection/transmission and energy resolution has been confirmed experimentally: A value of 7% for the normal-incidence peak reflectance at 395 eV was measured as well as a pronounced minimum in transmission for certain incidence angles and energies below the respective absorption edges, indicating significant phase-shifting effects.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.5700) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Reflection
(120.7000) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Transmission
(230.4170) Optical devices : Multilayers
(350.5610) Other areas of optics : Radiation

History
Original Manuscript: June 27, 1997
Revised Manuscript: October 8, 1997
Published: February 1, 1998

Citation
Franz Schäfers, Hans-Christoph Mertins, Frank Schmolla, Ingo Packe, Nikolay N. Salashchenko, and Eugeny A. Shamov, "Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft-x-ray range," Appl. Opt. 37, 719-728 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-37-4-719


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. E. Spiller, Soft-X-Ray Optics (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1994). [CrossRef]
  2. F. Schäfers, M. Grioni, J. Wood, H. van Brug, E. J. Puik, M. Dapor, F. Marchetti, “Application of W/Si multilayers for monochromatization of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation,” in X-Ray Multilayers for Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. SPIE984, 23–30 (1988). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft-x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992). [CrossRef]
  4. S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. Underwood, “Phase-retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994). [CrossRef]
  5. S. DiFonzo, B. R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3975–3978 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. N. Salashchenko, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayer x-ray optics for synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 359, 114–120 (1995). [CrossRef]
  8. S. V. Bobashev, A. V. Golubev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, L. A. Shmaenok, G. S. Volkov, N. N. Salashchenko, V. I. Zayzev, “Absolute photometry of pulsed fluxes of ultrasoft x-ray radiation,” Phys. Scr. 43, 356–367 (1991). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, M. Howells, “Soft x-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33–130 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Spiller, T. W. Barbee, L. Golub, K. Kalata, G. Nystrom, A. Viola, “Results from the recent flight of the IBM/SAO x-ray telescopes,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 391–401 (1993). [CrossRef]
  11. A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ = 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 566–570 (1993). [CrossRef]
  12. N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Gaponov, A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. S. Andreev, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, E. A. Shamov, S. I. Shinkarev, S. Yu. Zuev, “Normal incidence imaging multilayer x-ray mirrors with periods of nanometer and subnanometer scale,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2011, 402–412 (1993). [CrossRef]
  13. I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 345, 594–603 (1994). [CrossRef]
  14. S. S. Andreev, M. Müller, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. I. Polushkin, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, S. I. Shinkarev, D. M. Simanovsky, S. Yu. Zuev, “Small d-spacing multilayer structures for the photon energy range E > 0.3 keV,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-Ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE1800, 195–208 (1991).
  15. F. E. Christensen, S. Zhu, A. Hornstrup, H. W. Schnopper, P. Plag, J. Wood, “X-ray study of state-of-the-art small d-spacing W/B4C multilayers,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 3, 1–13 (1991). [CrossRef]
  16. L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, A. A. Sorokin, D. M. Simanovskii, A. V. Golubev, V. P. Belik, S. V. Bobashev, F. Bijkerk, E. Louis, F. G. Meijer, B. Etlicher, A. Y. Grudsky, “Multilayer EUV/x-ray polychromators for plasma diagnostics,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 259–262 (1996). [CrossRef]
  17. N. N. Salashchenko, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev , “Multilayer optics for soft x rays,” Phys. Chem. Mech. Surf. 11,(10), 1017–1034 (1995).
  18. H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, A. Gaupp, F. Schmolla, W. Gudat, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, R. Walker, M. Ericksson, R. Nyholm , “A detector for circularly polarized soft-x-ray radiation,” in Book of Abstracts, Workshop on Nanometer-Scale Methods in X-Ray Technology (NSMXT), Lisbon, 6–9 October1997.
  19. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30.000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993). [CrossRef]
  20. F. Schäfers, M. Krumrey, “reflec—A program to calculate soft-x-ray optical elements and synchrotron radiation beamlines,” Tech. Ber. BESSY TB201, 1–17 (1996), BESSY GmbH, Lentzeallee 100, D-14195 Berlin.
  21. H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, D. Clemens, P. Böni, M. Horrisberger , “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” to be published in Appl. Opt.
  22. M. Yamamoto, T. Namioka, “Layer by layer design method for soft-x-ray multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1622–1630 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. D. Akhsakhalyan, A. A. Fraerman, N. I. Polushkin, Yu. Ya. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Determination of layered synthetic microstructure parameters,” Thin Solid Films 203, 317–326 (1991). [CrossRef]
  24. S. L. Duan, J. O. Artman, “Study of the growth characteristics of sputtered Cr thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 4913–4915 (1990). [CrossRef]
  25. W. Jark, J. Stöhr, “A high-vacuum triple-axis diffractometer for soft-x-ray scattering experiments,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 266, 654–658 (1988). [CrossRef]
  26. C. Jung, ed., Research at BESSY, A User’s Handbook (BESSY, Berlin, Germany, 1995).
  27. H. Petersen, C. Jung, C. Hellwig, W. B. Peatman, W. Gudat, “Review of plane grating focusing for soft-x-ray monochromators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1–14 (1995). [CrossRef]
  28. U. Flechsig, F. Eggenstein, R. Follath, F. Senf, “Diffraction efficiency and high order suppression of gratings for synchrotron radiation,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. R. McKinney, C. A. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 9–17 (1997). [CrossRef]
  29. M. Krumrey, E. Tegeler, J. Barth, M. Krisch, F. Schäfers, R. Wolf, “Schottky type photodiodes as detectors in the VUV and soft-x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4336–4341 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. For further information on the multilayer survey, see http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/multilayer/survey.html .
  31. L. Nevot, P. Croce, “Caracterisation des surfaces par reflexion rasante de rayons X. Application a l’etude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980). [CrossRef]
  32. J. B. Kortright, “Status and limitations of multilayer x-ray interference structures,” J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 156, 271–275 (1996). [CrossRef]
  33. R. Souflie, E. M. Gullickson, “Reflectance measurements on clean surfaces for the determination of optical constants of silicon in the extreme ultraviolet-soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5499–5507 (1997). [CrossRef]
  34. F. Schäfers, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, M. Watanabe, J. Underwood, “Beamsplitting and polarizing properties of Cr/C transmission multilayers close to the carbon K-edge,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 155–158.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited