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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 4 — Feb. 1, 1998
  • pp: 733–738

Damage-limited lifetime of 193-nm lithography tools as a function of system variables

Richard Schenker and William Oldham  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 4, pp. 733-738 (1998)

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Model diffraction-limited optical systems are examined for the effects of radiation-induced compaction on optical performance. The Zernike phase aberration terms resulting from 193-nm-induced compaction in a model lithographic system are calculated with Fourier optics and ray tracing. Using experimental densification rates and the extracted aberration terms, we develop equations describing a useful system lifetime as a function of relevant system variables. In the example examined, the useful life depends strongly on the throughput, resist sensitivity, and partial coherence.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(070.2580) Fourier optics and signal processing : Paraxial wave optics
(100.2960) Image processing : Image analysis
(110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography
(220.1010) Optical design and fabrication : Aberrations (global)

Original Manuscript: May 12, 1997
Revised Manuscript: September 26, 1997
Published: February 1, 1998

Richard Schenker and William Oldham, "Damage-limited lifetime of 193-nm lithography tools as a function of system variables," Appl. Opt. 37, 733-738 (1998)

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  1. R. Schenker, W. G. Oldham, “Ultraviolet-induced densification in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1065–1071 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. R. Schenker, F. Piao, W. G. Oldham, “Material limitations to 193-nm lithographic system lifetimes,” in Optical Microlithography IX, G. E. Fuller, ed., Proc. SPIE2726, 698–706 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. R. Schenker, F. Piao, W. G. Oldham, “Durability of experimental fused silicas to 193-nm-induced compaction,” Optical Microlithography X, G. E. Fuller, ed., Proc. SPIE3051, 44–53 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. D. C. Allan, C. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, T. P. Seward, “193-nm excimer-laser-induced densification of fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1960–1962 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. L. Griscom, “Nature of defects and defect generation in optical glasses,” in Radiation Effects in Optical Materials, E. J. Friebele, ed., Proc. SPIE541, 38–59 (1985). [CrossRef]
  6. N. Harned, J. McClay, J. J. Shamaly, “Laser-damage impact on lithography system throughput,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 837–840 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. W. Kaiser, Carl Zeiss, Germany (personal communication, 1997).
  8. A. Suzuki, Canon, Inc., Japan (personal communication, 1997).
  9. R. Schenker, W. Oldham, “The effects of compaction on 193-nm lithographic system performance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3709–3713 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. For more information, see M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Pergamon, Oxford, 1993).
  11. Simulations performed with FEAP, a finite element simulation package developed and written by R. L. Taylor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Calif.
  12. For more information on these concepts, see J. W. Goodman , Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995) and J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).
  13. V. N. Mahajan, “Zernike circle polynomials and optical aberrations of systems with circular pupils,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8121–8124 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. M. Williamson, J. McClay, K. Andresen, G. Gallatin, M. Himel, J. Ivaldi, C. Mason, A. McCullough, C. Otis, J. Shamaly, C. Tomczyk, “Micrascan III, 0.25um resolution step and scan system,” in Optical Microlithography IX, G. E. Fuller, ed., Proc. SPIE2726, 780–786 (1996). [CrossRef]
  15. D. M. Williamson, U.S. patent5,212,593 (18May1993).
  16. Model based on D. M. Williamson, U.S. patent5,212,593 and is similar to the experimental 193-nm system at Lincoln Laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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