OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 4 — Feb. 1, 1998
  • pp: 747–752

Transformation of Gaussian to coherent uniform beams by inverse-Gaussian transmittive filters

Sie Poon Chang, Jin-Min Kuo, Yar-Ping Lee, Chen-Min Lu, and Kow-Je Ling  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 4, pp. 747-752 (1998)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (162 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Several plano–convex aluminum thin films, ∼30 nm thick in the center and ∼2 mm in diameter, were deposited on microscope cover slides to function as inverse-Gaussian transmittive filters. By placing one of these filters in front of the Gaussian He–Ne laser, we can modify the beam intensity profile in the downstream direction. To yield a uniform beam, the position of the filter must be aligned in the transverse plane for maximum intensity at the output of the filter. These filters are easy to fabricate and are inexpensive. Most important, they can help produce collimated phase-coherent uniform beams, which are useful in high-precision fringe-analysis techniques.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.2440) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Filters
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(220.3630) Optical design and fabrication : Lenses
(350.7420) Other areas of optics : Waves

Original Manuscript: January 6, 1997
Revised Manuscript: July 14, 1997
Published: February 1, 1998

Sie Poon Chang, Jin-Min Kuo, Yar-Ping Lee, Chen-Min Lu, and Kow-Je Ling, "Transformation of Gaussian to coherent uniform beams by inverse-Gaussian transmittive filters," Appl. Opt. 37, 747-752 (1998)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. W. Rhodes, D. L. Shealy, “Refractive optical systems for irradiance redistribution of collimated radiation: their design and analysis,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3545–3553 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. B. Veldkamp, C. J. Kastner, “Beam profile shaping for laser radars that use detector arrays,” Appl. Opt. 21, 345–356 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. L. Aagard, “Methods for optimizing the beam shape in a focused coherent optical system,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1633–1638 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. B. Veldkamp, “Technique for generating focal-plane flattop laser-beam profiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 294–297 (1982). [CrossRef]
  5. D. Shafer, “Gaussian to flat-top intensity distributing lens,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 159–160 (1982). [CrossRef]
  6. W. B. Veldkamp, “Laser beam profile shaping with interlaced binary diffraction gratings,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3209–3212 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. R. Jahan, M. A. Karim, “Refraction systems for Gaussian-to-uniform beam transformations,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 27–30 (1989). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Belvaux, S. P. S. Virdi, “A method for obtaining a uniform non-Gaussian laser illumination,” Opt. Commun. 15, 193–195 (1975). [CrossRef]
  9. B. R. Frieden, “Lossless conversion of a plane laser wave to a plane wave of uniform irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1400–1403 (1965). [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Karim, A. K. Cherri, A. A. Sami Awwal, A. Basit, “Refracting system for annular laser beam transformation,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2446–2449 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. B. Veldkamp, “Laser beam profile shaping with binary diffraction gratings,” Opt. Commun. 38, 381–386 (1981). [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Karim, A. M. Hanafi, F. Hussain, S. Mustafa, Z. Samberid, N. M. Zain, “Realization of a uniform circular source using a two-dimensional binary filter,” Opt. Lett. 10, 470–471 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Arima, Y. Imai, “Acoustooptic 2-D profile shaping of a Gaussian laser beam,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2813–2819 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. C. Aleksoff, K. K. Ellis, B. D. Neagle, “Holographic conversion of a Gaussian beam to a near-field uniform beam,” Opt. Eng. 30, 537–543 (1991). [CrossRef]
  15. N. C. Roberts, “Beam shaping by holographic filters,” Appl. Opt. 28, 31–32 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. H. Lee, “Method for converting a Gaussian laser beam into a uniform beam,” Opt. Commun. 36, 469–471 (1981). [CrossRef]
  17. C. S. Ih, “Absorption lens for producing uniform laser beams,” Appl. Opt. 11, 694–695 (1972). [CrossRef]
  18. W. W. Simmons, G. W. Leppelmeier, B. C. Johnson, “Optical beam shaping devices using polarization effects,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1629–1632 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. R. Leger, D. Chen, Z. Wang, “Diffractive optical element for mode shaping of a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 108–110 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. R. Leger, D. Chen, G. Mowry, Z. Wang, “Diffractive optic laser resonator,” Opt. Photon. News, 19–20 (December1994).
  21. P. A. Bélanger, C. Paré, “Optical resonators using graded-plane mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1057–1059 (1991). [CrossRef]
  22. P. A. Bélanger, R. L. Lachance, C. Paré, “Super-Gaussian output from a CO2 laser by using a graded-phase mirror resonator,” Opt. Lett. 17, 739–741 (1992). [CrossRef]
  23. C. Paré, P. A. Bélanger, “Custom laser resonators using graded-phase mirrors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 355–362 (1992). [CrossRef]
  24. S. De Silvestri, V. Magni, O. Svelto, G. Valentini, “Lasers with super-Gaussian mirrors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1500–1509 (1990). [CrossRef]
  25. V. Kermene, A. Saviot, M. Vampouille, B. Colombeau, C. Froehly, T. Dohnalik, “Flattening of the spatial laser beam profile with low losses and minimal beam divergence,” Opt. Lett. 17, 859–861 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Pichè, D. Cantin, “Enhancement of modal feedback in unstable resonators using mirrors with a phase step,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1135–1137 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. R. Leger, D. Chen, K. Dai, “High modal discrimination in a Nd:YAG laser resonator with internal phase gratings,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1976–1978 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. R. Leger, D. Chen, G. Mowry, “Design and performance of diffractive optics for custom laser resonators,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2498–2509 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. Y. Han, Y. Ishii, K. Murata, “Reshaping collimated laser beams with Gaussian profile to uniform profiles,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3644–3647 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. V. Klein, T. E. Furtak, Optics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1986), p. 295.
  31. D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), p. 729.
  32. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), p. 118.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited