The conventional design of phase gratings or kinoforms with a paraxial transmission function is restricted to the paraxial domain and thin elements. Therefore, the design and analysis of thick phase-relief structures require a nonparaxial theory, as given by the Born approximation. The Born approximation is derived as an extension of the scalar thin-element theory, which is applicable for thick elements with large propagation angles. As an example, general prism gratings on curved surfaces are treated.
© 1998 Optical Society of America
Wolfgang Singer and Hans Tiziani, "Born approximation for the nonparaxial scalar treatment of thick phase gratings," Appl. Opt. 37, 1249-1255 (1998)