OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 1998
  • pp: 1256–1267

Changes in Spectral Shape of Tissue Optical Properties in Conjunction with Laser-Induced Thermotherapy

Annika M. K. Nilsson, Christian Sturesson, David L. Liu, and Stefan Andersson-Engels  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 7, pp. 1256-1267 (1998)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (251 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We measured the optical properties on samples of rat liver tissue before and after laser-induced thermotherapy performed in vivo with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. This made it possible to monitor not only the influence of coagulation on the scattering properties but also the influence of damages to vessels and heat-induced damage to blood on the absorption properties. An experimental integrating-sphere arrangement was modified to allow the determination of the g factor and the absorption and scattering coefficients versus the wavelength in the 600–1050-nm spectral region, with the use of a spectrometer and a CCD camera. The results show a relative decrease in the g factor of on average 21 ∓ 7% over the entire spectral range following thermotherapy, and a corresponding relative increase in the scattering and absorption coefficients of 23 ∓ 8% and 200 ∓ 100%, respectively. An increase of on average 200 ∓ 80% was consequently found for the reduced scattering coefficient. The cause of these changes in terms of the Mie-equivalent average radius of tissue scatterers as well as of the distribution and biochemistry of tissue absorbers was analyzed, utilizing the information yielded by the g factor and the spectral shapes of the reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. These results were correlated with the alterations in the ultrastructure found in the histological evaluation. The average radius of tissue scattering centers, determined by using either the g factors calculated on the basis of Mie theory or the spectral shape of reduced scattering coefficients calculated on the Mie theory, was estimated to be 21–32% lower in treated than in untreated liver samples. The Mie-equivalent average radii of scattering centers in untreated liver tissue deduced by the two methods corresponded well and were found to be 0.31 and 0.29 μm, respectively, yielding particle sizes in the same range as the size of a mitochondrion.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3460) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers
(170.1420) Medical optics and biotechnology : Biology
(170.3890) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics instrumentation
(170.6930) Medical optics and biotechnology : Tissue

Annika M. K. Nilsson, Christian Sturesson, David L. Liu, and Stefan Andersson-Engels, "Changes in Spectral Shape of Tissue Optical Properties in Conjunction with Laser-Induced Thermotherapy," Appl. Opt. 37, 1256-1267 (1998)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. A. J. Welch, “The thermal response of laser irradiated tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1471–1481 (1984).
  2. S. L. Jacques and S. A. Prahl, “Modeling optical and thermal distribution in tissue during laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 494–503 (1987).
  3. M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. LeCarpentier, and A. J. Welch, “Light and temperature distribution in laser irradiated tissue: the influence of anisotropic scattering and refractive index,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2230–2237 (1989).
  4. W. Verkruysse, J. W. Pickering, J. F. Beek, M. Keijzer, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Modelling the effect of wavelength on the pulsed dye laser treatment of port wine stains,” Appl. Opt. 32, 393–398 (1993).
  5. C. Sturesson and S. Andersson-Engels, “A mathematical model for predicting the temperature distribution in laser-induced hyperthermia. Experimental evaluation and applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 2037–2052 (1995).
  6. S. Thomsen, “Pathologic analysis of photothermal and photomechanical effects of laser–tissue interactions,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 825–835 (1991).
  7. S. Rastegar and M. Motamedi, “A theoretical analysis of dynamic variation of temperature dependent optical properties in the response of laser irradiated tissue,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE 1202, 253–259 (1990).
  8. S. Thomsen, S. L. Jacques, and S. T. Flock, “Microscopic correlates of macroscopic optical property changes during thermal coagulation of myocardium,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE 1202, 2–11 (1990).
  9. G. J. Derbyshire, D. K. Bogen, and M. Unger, “Thermally induced optical property changes in myocardium at 1.06 mm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 28–34 (1990).
  10. S. Jaywant, B. C. Wilson, L. Lilge, T. Flotte, J. Woolsey, and C. McCulloch, “Temperature dependent changes in the optical absorption and scattering spectra of tissues: correlation with ultrastructure,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction IV, S. L. Jacques and A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE 1882, 218–229 (1993).
  11. J. W. Pickering, S. Bosman, P. Posthumus, P. Blokland, J. F. Beek, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Changes in the optical properties (at 632.8 nm) of slowly heated myocardium,” Appl. Opt. 32, 367–371 (1993).
  12. I. F. Cilesiz and A. J. Welch, “Light dosimetry: effects of dehydration and thermal damage on the optical properties of human aorta,” Appl. Opt. 32, 477–487 (1993).
  13. J. W. Pickering, P. Posthumus, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Continuous measurement of the heat-induced changes in the optical properties (at 1,064 nm) of rat liver,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 200–205 (1994).
  14. R. Agah, A. H. Gandjbakhche, M. Motamedi, R. Nossal, and R. F. Bonner, “Dynamics of temperature dependent optical properties of tissue: dependence on thermally induced alteration,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 839–846 (1996).
  15. A. M. K. Nilsson, G. W. Lucassen, W. Verkruysse, S. Andersson-Engels, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Changes in optical properties of human whole blood in vitro due to slow heating,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 366–373 (1997).
  16. L. Liu, S. Andersson-Engels, C. Sturesson, K. Svanberg, C. H. Håkansson, and S. Svanberg, “Tumour vessel damage resulting from laser-induced hyperthermia alone and in combination with photodynamic therapy,” Cancer Lett. 111, 1–9 (1996).
  17. A. M. K. Nilsson, R. Berg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Measurements of the optical properties of tissue in conjunction with photodynamic therapy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4609–4619 (1995).
  18. J. W. Pickering, C. J. M. Moes, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Two integrating sphere with an intervening scattering sample,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 621–631 (1992).
  19. J. W. Pickering, S. A. Prahl, N. van Wieringen, J. F. Beek, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Double-integrating-sphere system for measuring the optical properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt. 32, 399–410 (1993).
  20. A. Roggan, H. Albrecht, K. Dörschel, O. Minet, and G. J. Müller, “Experimental setup and Monte-Carlo model for the determination of optical tissue properties in the wavelength range 330–1100 nm,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, and M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE 2323, 21–36 (1995).
  21. J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, “Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 36, 949–957 (1997).
  22. L. Wang and S. L. Jacques, “Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues in standard C,” Report (Laser Biology Research Laboratory, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Tex., 1992).
  23. P. Parsa, S. L. Jacques, and N. S. Nishioka, “Optical properties of rat liver between 350 and 2200 nm,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2325–2330 (1989).
  24. J. R. Zijp and J. J. ten Bosch, “Pascal program to perform Mie calculations,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1691–1695 (1993).
  25. R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. R. Zijp, P. M. A. Sloot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, and M. H. Koelink, “Reduced light-scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1370–1376 (1992).
  26. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  27. W.-C. Lin, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, “Dynamics of tissue optics during laser heating of turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3413–3420 (1996).
  28. B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, and B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).
  29. S. Bosman, “Heat-induced structural alterations in myocardium in relation to changing optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 32, 461–463 (1993).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited