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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 37, Iss. 9 — Mar. 20, 1998
  • pp: 1457–1464

Polarization Structures in Parhelic Circles and in 120° Parhelia

Günther P. Können and Jaap Tinbergen  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 9, pp. 1457-1464 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.37.001457


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Abstract

Parhelic circles due to plate-oriented crystals (hence, with main axes vertical) and 120° parhelia change in position when viewed through a rotating polarizer. The parhelic circle moves vertically; its largest shift is found at an azimuthal distance between 90° and 120° from the Sun. The 120° parhelia move both vertically and horizontally. The magnitudes of the shifts are between 0.1° and 0.3°, depending on solar elevation. The mechanism is polarization-sensitive internal reflection by prism faces of the ice crystals. We outline the theory and present three visual and one instrumental observation of the displacements of these halos in polarized light.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1290) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric optics
(010.2940) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Ice crystal phenomena
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

Citation
Günther P. Können and Jaap Tinbergen, "Polarization Structures in Parhelic Circles and in 120° Parhelia," Appl. Opt. 37, 1457-1464 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-37-9-1457


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References

  1. G. P. Können, “Polarization of haloes and double refraction,” Weather 32, 467–468 (1977).
  2. G. P. Können and J. Tinbergen, “Polarimetry of a 22° halo,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3382–3400 (1992).
  3. G. P. Können, S. H. Muller, and J. Tinbergen, “Halo polarization profiles and the interfacial angles of ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4569–4579 (1994).
  4. G. P. Können, “Identification of odd-radius halo arcs and of 44°/46° parhelia by their inner-edge polarization,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1450–1456 (1998).
  5. W. Tape, Atmospheric Halos, Vol. 64 of Antarctic Research Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1994).
  6. G. Szivessy, “Kristaloptik,” in Handbuch der Physik, H. Konen, ed. (Springer, Berlin 1928), Vol. 20, p. 702 and pp. 715–718.
  7. H. E. Merwin, “Refractivity of birefringent crystals,” in International Critical Tables, E. W. Washburn, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1930), Vol. 7, pp. 16–33.
  8. W. Snel van Royen (Leiden, Netherlands 1580–1626), latinized name Snellius, is often incorrectly retranslated as Snell. See also Ref. 9.
  9. W. D. Bruton and G. W. Kattawar, “Unique temperature profiles for the atmosphere below an observer from sunset images,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6957–6961 (1997) see authors’ note in Ref. 5.
  10. E. Collett, Polarized Light: Fundamentals and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).
  11. P. Drude, “Rotationspolarisation,” in Handbuch der Physik, A. Winkelman, ed. (Barth, Leipzig, 1906), Vol. 4, pp. 1347 and 1353.

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