OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 37, Iss. 9 — Mar. 20, 1998
  • pp: 1495–1505

Simulation of inferior mirages observed at the Halligen Sea

Eberhard Tränkle  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 37, Issue 9, pp. 1495-1505 (1998)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (7164 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Two unusual forms of inferior mirage are observed and photographed at the Halligen Sea. With heuristic analytic functions for the temperature profiles, numerical integration of the refraction differential equation on a flat earth is performed. The simulation shows that a double inferior mirage can appear if a light wind carries hot air from above dry sandbanks in the mud flats. Horizontal stripes can appear in the mirage image if a water channel crosses the line of sight between the observer and the object.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.0010) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric and oceanic optics
(010.4030) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Mirages and refraction
(120.6780) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Temperature

Original Manuscript: June 5, 1997
Revised Manuscript: September 22, 1997
Published: March 20, 1998

Eberhard Tränkle, "Simulation of inferior mirages observed at the Halligen Sea," Appl. Opt. 37, 1495-1505 (1998)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Engler, “Luftspiegelungen WATT’N DAT?” Geo 5, 144–162 (1992); Television film “Fata Morganen—Zauberspiegel am Horizont,” first broadcast 8 March 1996, M. Engler, producer, ARTE (1996).
  2. A. Wegener, “Elementare Theorie der atmosphärischen Spiegelungen,” Annalen der Phys. 4. Folge, Band 57, 203–230 (1918). [CrossRef]
  3. W. H. Lehn, “A simple parabolic model for the optics of the atmospheric surface layer,” Appl. Math. Model. 9, 447–453 (1985). [CrossRef]
  4. A. B. Fraser, “Simple solution for obtaining a temperature profile from the inferior mirage,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1724–1731 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. H. Lehn, J. S. Morrish, “A three-parameter inferior mirage model for optical sensing of surface layer temperature profiles,” IEEE Trans. on Geosci. Remote Sensing GE-24, 940–964 (1986). [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Pertner, F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed. (Braumuller, Vienna, 1922).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited