To optimize the functions of the surface-relief diffractive optical elements for optical limiters and other applications, we present a systematic design and analysis with numerical illustrations of the transmission properties of different surface-relief phase gratings and Fabry–Perot elements. The spectral response and the tolerance of fabrication errors have been included. An analysis shows that the blazed grating and the echelon grating, a multilevel element as a substitute of the blazed grating, can make the on-axis transmittance very low (less than 1% with one grating) over the broad visible band with a large tolerance of fabrication errors. The results are highly significant for the design of optical-limiting devices.
© 1999 Optical Society of America
(050.1380) Diffraction and gratings : Binary optics
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(190.4360) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, devices
Luzhong Cai, Chunfei Li, Jianhua Zhao, and Hua-Kuang Liu, "On-Axis Beam Extinction Through Diffraction Design and Analysis," Appl. Opt. 38, 56-66 (1999)