OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 10 — Apr. 1, 1999
  • pp: 1897–1909

Measurements of the atmospheric carbon monoxide column with a ground-based length-modulated radiometer

Boyd T. Tolton and James R. Drummond  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 10, pp. 1897-1909 (1999)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (279 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A ground-based remote sounding instrument that uses a length-modulated radiometer to measure the total atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) column has been built. Measurements made in Toronto during August and September of 1994 showed average CO concentrations of 125 to 150 parts per billion in volume (ppbv, parts in 109). Similar measurements made in October at a rural site 80 km north of Toronto showed concentrations of approximately 100 ppbv. The latter measurements are shown to agree with other simultaneous ground- and satellite-based measurements. This instrument is an advanced prototype of the MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) satellite instrument.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1280) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric composition
(120.0280) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Remote sensing and sensors
(120.5630) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Radiometry
(280.1120) Remote sensing and sensors : Air pollution monitoring

Original Manuscript: August 14, 1998
Revised Manuscript: December 16, 1998
Published: April 1, 1999

Boyd T. Tolton and James R. Drummond, "Measurements of the atmospheric carbon monoxide column with a ground-based length-modulated radiometer," Appl. Opt. 38, 1897-1909 (1999)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. A. Logan, M. J. Prather, S. C. Wofsy, M. B. McElroy, “Tropospheric chemistry: a global perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7210–7254 (1981). [CrossRef]
  2. J.-F. Müller, G. Brasseur, “IMAGES: a three-dimensional chemical transport model of the global troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16455–16490 (1995). [CrossRef]
  3. H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, W. D. Hypes, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, B. B. Gormsen, M. S. Saylor, W. D. Hesketh, “Middle and upper tropospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios as measured by a satellite-borne remote sensor during November 1981,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10865–10887 (1986). [CrossRef]
  4. H. G. Reichle, V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, W. Seiler, “The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during October 1984,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9845–9856 (1990). [CrossRef]
  5. V. S. Connors, B. B. Gormsen, S. Nolf, H. G. Reichle, “Spaceborne observations of the global distribution of carbon monoxide in the middle troposphere during April and October 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
  6. F. W. Taylor, “Pressure modulator radiometry,” in Spectrometric Techniques, G. A. Vanasse, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Vol. III, pp. 137–197. [CrossRef]
  7. B. T. Tolton, J. R. Drummond, “Characterization of the length-modulated radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5409–5420 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. R. Drummond, G. P. Brasseur, G. R. Davis, J. C. Gille, J. C. McConnell, G. D. Pesket, H. G. Reichle, N. Roulet, “MOPITT mission description document,” (Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7, Canada, 1993; http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/mopitt/mdd_93/index.html ).
  9. C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, F. G. O’Callaghan, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the Spacelab 3 mission, April 29 through May 6, 1985,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1987).
  10. C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, A High-Resolution Atlas of the Infrared Spectrum of the Sun and the Earth Atmosphere from Space, Volume I. The Sun, NASA Ref. Pub. 1224 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1989).
  11. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Standard Atmosphere, NOAA Pub. NOAA-S/T76-1562 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1976).
  12. E. J. Dlugokencky, L. P. Steele, P. M. Lang, K. A. Masarie, “The growth rate and distribution of atmospheric methane,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 17021–17043 (1994). [CrossRef]
  13. P. C. Novelli, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, “Distributions and recent changes of carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19015–19033 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. D. D. Parrish, M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, J. E. Yee, M. S. Warshawsky, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. L. Forbes, J. L. Moody, “Relationships between ozone and carbon monoxide at surface sites in the North Atlantic region,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13357–13376 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. O. Poulida, R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, J. Z. Holland, R. G. Wardell, J. G. Watkins, “Trace gas concentrations and meteorology in rural Virginia, 1, ozone and carbon monoxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22462–22475 (1991). [CrossRef]
  16. R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, P. Kelley, K. P. Rhoads, “Large-scale pollution of the atmosphere over the remote Atlantic Ocean: evidence from Bermuda,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8945–8952 (1995). [CrossRef]
  17. N. S. Pougatchev, N. B. Jones, B. J. Connor, C. P. Rinsland, E. Becker, M. T. Coffey, V. S. Connors, P. Demoulin, A. V. Dzhola, H. Fast, E. I. Grechko, J. W. Hannigan, M. Kioke, Y. Kondo, E. Mahieu, W. G. Mankin, R. L. Mittiermeier, J. Notholt, H. G. Reichle, B. Sen, L. P. Steele, G. C. Toon, L. N. Yurganov, R. Zander, Y. Zhao, “Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Space flights,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19317–19325 (1998). [CrossRef]
  18. P. C. Novelli, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, B. E. Anderson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, E. G. Brunke, B. G. Dodderidge, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, K. S. Lam, K. A. Masarie, T. Matsuo, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, “An internally consistent set of globally distributed atmospheric carbon monoxide mixing ratios developed using results from an intercomparison of measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19285–19294 (1998). [CrossRef]
  19. H. E. Scheel, E.-G. Brunke, R. Sladkovic, W. Seiler, “In situ CO concentrations at the sites Zugspitze (47 °N, 11 °E) and Cape Point (34 °S, 18 °E) in April and October 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19295–19304 (1998). [CrossRef]
  20. B. G. Doddridge, R. Morales-Morales, K. P. Rhoads, J. T. Merrill, P. C. Novelli, R. R. Dickerson, V. S. Connors, H. G. Reichle, “Ground-based and airborne observations of carbon monoxide during NASA Measurements of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) missions SRL-1 and SRL-2,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19305–19316 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. S. A. Christopher, J. Chou, R. M. Welch, D. V. Kliche, V. S. Connors, “Satellite investigations of fire, smoke, and carbon monoxide during April 1994 MAPS mission: case studies over tropical Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19327–19336 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited