A line-by-line radiative-transfer model to quantify the Ring effect as caused by rotational Raman scattering has been developed for the 310–550-nm spectral interval. The solar zenith angle and the resolution are key input parameters, as is the sky spectrum (excluding inelastic atmospheric scattering), which was modeled with modtran 3.5. The filling in is modeled for ground-based viewing geometry and includes surface reflection and single inelastic scattering. It is shown that O<sub>2</sub> contributes half of the filling in of N<sub>2</sub>. A strong inverse relationship with wavelength is noted in the filling in. A comparison with observations shows moderate agreement. The largest filling in occurs in the Ca ii K and H lines.
© 1999 Optical Society of America
Christopher E. Sioris and Wayne F. J. Evans, "Filling in of Fraunhofer and Gas-Absorption Lines in Sky Spectra as Caused by Rotational Raman Scattering," Appl. Opt. 38, 2706-2713 (1999)