A line-by-line radiative-transfer model to quantify the Ring effect as caused by rotational Raman scattering has been developed for the 310–550-nm spectral interval. The solar zenith angle and the resolution are key input parameters, as is the sky spectrum (excluding inelastic atmospheric scattering), which was modeled with modtran3.5. The filling in is modeled for ground-based viewing geometry and includes surface reflection and single inelastic scattering. It is shown that O2 contributes half of the filling in of N2. A strong inverse relationship with wavelength is noted in the filling in. A comparison with observations shows moderate agreement. The largest filling in occurs in the Ca ii K and H lines.
© 1999 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: November 5, 1998
Revised Manuscript: January 25, 1999
Published: April 20, 1999
Christopher E. Sioris and Wayne F. J. Evans, "Filling in of Fraunhofer and gas-absorption lines in sky spectra as caused by rotational Raman scattering," Appl. Opt. 38, 2706-2713 (1999)